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1940s and 1950s: Dating is about procuring a husband ASAP. During World War II, trying to find a fella for a first date was a tricky task, because so many had been drafted. It was then paramount ... Unfortunately, good dating information for silverface amps from the 1970s is still lacking and that’s why there isn’t much new information for amps made from 1972-76. For some reason, folks are willing to poke their head into tweed, blonde, brown and blackface amps, but not into silverface amps. The Dating Game This show aired in May 1970 in the United States. David asked the three contestants a series of question and based on their answers, he chose one to go on a date with. In the meantime, after the pill “liberated” women in 1960, dating had evolved. By the 1970s, couples were meeting at singles bars or discos—or by putting personal ads in physical, printed ... Before the 1970’s, dating had been strictly regulated and most people saw a woman’s sole purpose in life as being a good home maker and to raise children, but that changed in the 1970's. The concept of dating really began at the turn of the 20th century.Prior to the late early 1900s, courtship was a much more private, unemotional affair. Women would meet with several men, with her parents present, to whittle the pickings down to the most suitable match for marriage, which heavily relied on factors such as financial and social status. Maria Serrantonio Sara Gourlay Gianna Brianna Typical date The Feminist Movement attending college, women could have a career, Marriage and children were no longer the hallmarks of success Birth Control Pill most-used form of birth control sex was no longer tied to reproduction The magazine and the passing of Roe v. Wade — both in 1972 — was a turning point for the modern woman. Gloria Steinem, arguably the women’s movement loudest activist, was quoted as saying “A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle.” Here’s what dating was like in the 1970s… dating introduced privacy to the process of courtship. Ironically, a man and a woman meeting in public was the best way to have some privacy. Before dating, courtship involved suitors calling on ... 17 Ridiculous Dating Etiquette Rules from the 1950s Editors of Reminisce Updated: Mar. 30, 2020 Here’s a look back at some dos and don’ts that show why spending a Saturday night with your ...
Five dreams about celebrities, one other dream about my ex best friend who was possibly attracted to me at one point, and then a dream I forgot about? Are my dreams a sign telling me I’m progressing and reverting at the same time?
2020.09.20 12:55 Expert-SpendFive dreams about celebrities, one other dream about my ex best friend who was possibly attracted to me at one point, and then a dream I forgot about? Are my dreams a sign telling me I’m progressing and reverting at the same time?
I’ve had the strangest dreams. On my birthday (August 25th of this year), I had two dreams about the Canadian singers, Shawn Mendes (a Leo Sun) and Jessie Reyez. A few days later, I had a third dream about the YouTuber, Mario Adrion. An additional week afterward, I had a fourth dream about another YouTuber, James Charles. And on the morning of the 19th (of September), while I slept, I dreamt that I was the subject of a television show. We were on a commercial break, so I took a walk down a hallway in the production studio. All of a sudden, in the dream, an old love interest of mine—who I think was in love with me at the time but too afraid or in denial to act on them—who’s a Capricorn Sun (born on January 3, 1995, his initials are JJH) randomly ran into me, and he couldn’t stop smiling and borderline moaning from excitement to see me (the latter of which he has also done to me in real life). And then, after he was smiling and excited for so long while we exchanged pleasantries, I woke up. I had some dream last night, about whatever went on, and a YouTuber I don’t watch that often, appeared. When I woke up, I was racking my brain trying to remember who it was. I still forget. Two days ago, the same thing happened. I want to add background details about a few real life friends and lovers of mine, so you all understand where my thoughts and reflections are right now. A friend of mine told me (about the Cap male, at the time we were close), “He likes you! He was staring at you the whole time!” She and I had just come from a double date with this Cap and his love interest (who is a people pleasing personality type). This Cap male was sexually abused as a teenager by a male authoritarian, and he’s said he doesn’t want to have a*al sex with other men because of it. Although he did try to climb in bed with me, only 1 day after we met (and I consented to it), but I mentioned it to him years later, and he ended our friendship because it shocked him. He forgot it happened. He also threw my shoes across the room and forced me to get them, say my full name to him three times, and threatened to expose my sexuality to a group of people we both had just met (I was closeted and bisexual then—I came out as pansexual two years ago). It’s been 7 years since all that happened, and he acts like we don’t know each other. He calls me his “acquaintance”. He was my first kiss, and later said he “regrets it because I felt bad that you’d never had it before”. At the time we were close, he even asked me to be a guest feature on a song of his. I wrote my own lyrics to it, and he hated it because he wanted them to fit a concept (all his albums are concept albums and he’d only done one album at that point). My mom said, at the time, “You really should have worked with (JJH).” I’m still in love with him. He’s still one of my biggest supporters I’ve ever had, I’m still one of his biggest ones as well, and he was also my first kiss. I was also told, “You’re not defenseless while you sleep”. It was just revealed to me that the 3 boys I’d thought of dating—with the initials AH, CW (I don’t know his final initial), and DJW—are either narcissistic, using me because they need fun in their lives or just insecure. Out of all of them, I was suggested to date DJW more. That he (like myself) loves sentiment and fun, too. That (because he’s married with a child), he “doesn’t know what he wants out of life and romance”, and to “tread lightly, because he could have a darkness to him”, or he might not treat you badly. DJW is a Virgo Sun - born on September 8, 1998. AH is an Aries Sun, born at the end of April 1999, who has a disorder called somnophilia. It’s a disorder where he’s sexually attracted to those who are unconscious—and as he puts it, “asleep”—but I only discovered the disorder through researching things he’d already told me. He doesn’t know he has it. I read that it could progress into necrophilia, if not treated or healed. I’m a Virgo Sun & Rising + Capricorn Moon + Cancer Venus, born on August 25, 1996 at 3:30 AM, and my initials are DACS. On top of all that, I’m currently in mental, spiritual and emotional warfare and abuse with an ex lover of mine, who I dated for 5 years—an Aquarius Sun, born on February 18, 1992, his initials are JDL. He’s mentally unstable and emotionally immature. He’s a bipolar paranoid schizophrenic. He never wanted to date me. He only wanted to manipulate me into dating him so that I could be his lab rat he could use for his manipulative games. If I were to explain all of the games he played, we’d be here for hours. I’m currently trying to obtain a restraining order against him, which I’ve been attempting to get for weeks, and I hope it is granted. On top of all that, I feel miserable from former high school bullies of mine, with initials DP (I do not know his signs or placements) and VP (a Sagittarius Sun - born on November 30, 1995), not wanting to make amends with me after I’ve reached out to them to start over and possibly be friends with them again or even date them in the future. DP, VP and I all graduated high school 7 years ago. An energy reader told me (after I showed photos of them) they’re both bisexual, that VP “has depression” and “hasn’t told her (his girlfriend) the full truth” (about how they treated me and how it affected him), that DP “is bisexual or likes being manhandled”. And after all that, I’ve also been dealing with my toxic family members. With the initials JYT (she’s a Taurus Sun + Gemini Rising - born on May 7, 1963) and KAR (He’s a Cancer Sun - born on July 7, 1970). My father was a Pisces Sun, born on March 11, 1955. My mother’s mother (who I was raised around primarily—with a few exceptions) was a Scorpio Sun, born on November 2, 1932. And my aunt (who I spent summers with) is an Aries Sun, born on April 3, 1954. As well as the emotional and mental effects of a hook up of mine in August not going so well between me and a high school classmate of mine, with the initials DHN (a Virgo Sun - born on September 20, 1996). He yelled at me as he was driving me home, and I still think about what he said to this day. It’s been a whole month since it happened. We’d been friends since 2012, until last month and now we no longer speak. He has ignored both my text messages, so I blocked him. There’s also my regret over being rejected by a close friend of mine, with the initials ZLS. He’s a Sagittarius Sun, born on December 4th. And I’m just healing, after a breakup from my engagement to my ex fiancé (an Aquarius Sun - born on January 31, 1996). With the initials TML. We dated for almost 3 years. He ended our engagement a few weeks before our third anniversary. I’ve done inner child work and shadow work, by myself and turned both processes into my own documentaries on YouTube. I just feel like something that could help me in my life is missing. Everywhere I go and every waking moment, it feels like there’s a looming cloud over my physical spirit. I feel like I really want to go even farther than I’ve come in life, meet my true love, and I’ve done the work to heal—yet now, I’m having dreams about odd encounters with James Charles, Shawn Mendes, Jessie Reyez, Mario Adrion (who’s a model and YouTuber), Trevi Moran (who’s a female singer from the American ‘X Factor’), and now two more male celebrities I won’t remember dreaming about? I’ve never dreamt about celebrities, for four weeks in a row, multiple times a week. I usually know what my dreams mean, and these have me stumped. My dreams seem like some conspiracy theory that might not come true. I’ll gladly go in depth about each dream in the comments. I wrote what happened in the Shawn & James dreams right after they happened. Maybe this cloud is the key to positivity to come? Or are my celebrity dreams & the dream about JJH the key to future positivity for me?
2020.09.20 04:56 microcrashCP USA, Communist Party USA Statement on the 100th Anniversary of the Communist Party of Turkey
The CPUSA congratulates the Communist Party of Turkey, TKP, on its 100th Anniversary; 100 years of struggle for socialism and against imperialism in Turkey. The TKP is the oldest political party now functioning in Turkey. The CPUSA mourns the 15 martyrs of the TKP who were among its founders. The CPUSA salutes the contribution of the TKP to the expulsion of the colonial imperialist powers after WWI leading to the independence of Turkey and the establishment of the Republic and later progressive democratic reforms. The CPUSA salutes the struggle of the TKP under very difficult conditions for the establishment of trade unions in Turkey, for peace under US imperialist encroachment and the democratization realized after 1960. The CPUSA salutes the struggle of the TKP against NATO, fascism and its leading role in the militant trade union movement of Turkey during the 1970's. The CPUSA salutes the struggle of the TKP against the fascist Junta during the 1980's and the steadfastness of its cadres against those who wished to liquidate the communist movement and the success of its battle for legalization in 2006. The CPUSA salutes the present struggle of the TKP for worker's rights and socialism, for the democratic rights of ALL working people of Turkey, for peace and internationalism, and its defense of secularism and enlightenment in the face of the reactionary, anti-labor and undemocratic Erdoğan regime. The CPUSA also congratulates the election last year of the first Communist mayor in Turkey in Dersim and the model administration of that city during the current pandemic. BoyunEğme! Don't Bow Down! Statement date: September 8, 2020. http://www.solidnet.org/article/CP-of-Turkey-Communist-Party-USA-Statement-on-the-100th-Anniversary-of-the-Communist-Party-of-Turkey/
2020.09.19 23:05 pog99Alternative Hypothesis/ Ryan Faulk distorts South Africa under Apartheid.
Originally, my plan was to continue on with his article on Slavery in the United States. However, United Left, and some previous posts of mine, more or less already debunk the picture he paints in that article. I still plan to address though at a later date. This article, perhaps even better than the last, show how thin Faulk's objectivity is. He opens and closes as if he was actually being holistic, but instead leaves a specimen blatant rationalization over a topic common among right-wing circles, the racial history and politics of South Africa. Lets not waste time.
The impact of European colonialism on the world is often described as being profoundly negative. The popular view is that Europeans came, stole resources, destroyed cultures, and committed mass murder all over the earth. By contrast, the prevailing view 100 years ago was that Europe was supplying the world with advanced institutions which they would not develop on their own and, in so doing, was civilizing the world. Either of these theories might be true, and, to some extent, they both are. It is obviously correct that Europe took resources from places, killed some number of people, and ended various indigenous cultural practices. It is also obviously true that Europe set up various institutions, such as capitalism and democracy, in various parts of the world which had not developed these things on their own.
Does he think state control over, say, African labor during colonialism is Capitalism? Or that limiting Local chiefs from legislation such as in Colonial Nigeria is democracy?
A broad look at the empirical evidence suggests that European colonization helped most people more than it hurt them. Research has shown that the longer, or more heavily, a place was colonized by Europeans the richer it ended up being today (Eaverly and Levine, 2012;Feyrer and Sacerdote, 2006). Moreover, in the 20th century Africa, which is the center of much of the colonization debate, saw tremendous net gains in both wealth and population size (Manning, 2013; Roser; 2016)
Going through each of these, The Easterly study mainly looks at economic growth, and honestly doesn't suffice to explain the specific of African colonial experience in that regard. The second study notes how specific conditions of colonialism influences growth, while the two figures on African population growth shows this to be particularly so in the Post colonial era. Few would consider the first decades of African independence to be embodied by these numbers. Here's an actual balanced set of studies and explanation on Colonialism in Africa.
I find this broad view compelling, but discussions on colonialism are rarely about the broad view. Instead, people like to talk about the anecdotal experiences of particular countries at particular times, and no anecdote is more often talked about than South African apartheid. In this article, I will examine the history of South Africa as a case study in European colonialism.
Correction: You will gloss over it in a way that reflects your political biases.
Black Origins The earliest people known to have occupied South Africa were a type of African called Khosians. Khosians are not the group of people most people think of when they think of Black South Africans. Those are Bantus. Bantu Africans and Khosians Africans look different, traditionally spoke different languages, and lived different sorts of lives. If we turned the clock back 4 thousand years, we would find that the southern half of the African continent was almost entirely inhabited by Khosians. Some time roughly 3,000 years ago, Bantu Africans began expanding out of eastern and central Africa. As they expanded, they displaced many of the African peoples who had previously lived there. The degree to which this expansion occurred via violence, disease, out breeding, or other means, is unknown. By 1,000AD, the Bantu had reached most of South Africa. However, most of the people there were still Khosians. When the Portuguese arrived in South Africa in the 1400’s, they encountered very few Bantu. As the Bantu expanded, they divided into tribes which then went to war with one another over land. In several African nations, a specific Bantu tribe came to dominate the others and then set up an empire. This occurred in South Africa as well. In the 1810’s and 1820’s, the Zulus conquered many neighboring African tribes and formed the Zulu empire. This empire went on to last almost until South Africa was entirely under White rule.
So a few things worth mentioning, that by 1000 AD, the current trends in a predominately Bantu Eastern half and a predominately Khoisan Western Half was already established.
The Rise of apartheid While the South African government did not obtain independence from Britain until 1948, the beginnings of Apartheid can be traced back to theland act of 1913. This law made it illegal for Whites to sell land to Blacks and vice versa. By this point, Whites had already conquered or purchased the vast majority of South African land and this law was designed to make sure that this would not change. Between this time and the 1960’s, the Apartheid government passed many laws which further segregated the races. For instance, inter-racial marriage was banned. The most often talked about policy of South Africa was the creation of the Bantustans. These were designated “homelands” for Black South Africans. The Apartheid government forcibly moved millions of Blacks from multi-racial areas of South Africa into these Bantustans. As explained in the report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the people who established the Bantustans gave the following rational for their motives: “NP politicians portrayed the homelands as a moral response to South Africa’s ‘multi-national’ reality. Apartheid theorists believed that South Africa was a country containing a number of nations, each developed to a greater or lesser degree. Freedom, they posited, could be realized only by providing the opportunity for each of these nations to exist and develop along its own lines.” However, critics are quick to point out that the Bantustans consisted of less than a quarter of South Africa’s land even though Blacks made up an overwhelming majority of the nation’s population. 📷 Bantustans also suffered from tremendous poverty. As the Encyclopedia of Britiannia explains: “The Bantustans were rural, impoverished, underindustrialized, and reliant on subsidies from the South African government.The original hope of the designers of the Bantustan system was that industries would be established along the Bantustan borders to utilize the cheap labour available nearby, but for the most part these hopes went unrealized. Other initiatives to create the illusion of viable economies for the Bantustans also broke down. To the end they were heavily dependent on financial aid supplied by the South African government. Poverty remained acute in the Bantustans, and child mortality rates were extremely high. Despite draconian control of where people were allowed to farm and the number of cattle they were permitted to have, Bantustan lands were oversettled, overgrazed, and hence afflicted with serious soil erosion.”
So far so good. Of course, for this to be an article by Faulk, things would have to sharply turn downward.
The Net Economic Impact of Bantustans Such critics rarely mention the fact that as can be seen, in 1960, Black South Africans were exactly as poor as Sub-Saharan Africans generally were. By 1980 they were far richer (1). 📷 Given this, it does not seem fair to say, as some people do, that Bantustans caused Blacks to be poor. Prior to being forced into these areas, Black South Africans were just as poor as Sub-Saharan Africans generally were. Had Black South Africans been left totally alone, there is no reason to think that they would have become any richer than the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa let alone richer than they were under Apartheid. The land in Bantustans may have been bad. But this, evidently, was more than made up for by payments from the South African government.
The economic strain caused by the nature of the Bantustans is basically uncontested by actual experts as far as I know. The basis being that the clearly linked demographic disasters linked to their design have been established but ignored by the government since their early existence through the Tomlinson report and previous studies calling for reform. Voerwerd refusing to spend the recommended budget to actually achieve independence as oppose to partial dependence for black labour, as well as the future migration to urban areas fueled by the increasingly poor conditions, suggest whatever aid given to the homelands were far from sufficient in any meaningful sense. Height data suggests Living standards indeed deteriorated with the onset of particular labour exploitation events and that future improvements were linked to being apartheid of the same economic benefits that white South Africans were apart of. This would've been undermined had Apartheid not inadvertently fueled migration into white urban areas and new urban areas surrounding the homelands close to white populations. Thus, whatever growth seen between Apartheid, which eventually became economically weakened from the 1970s to the 1980s, would be in spite of the laws imposed. See here fore an overview on the arbitrary decision, poor conditions, and deceiving nature of Homeland "independence".
In conjunction with these external pressures, domestic terrorism was rapidly rising in South Africa during this time period. Following the incident in Sharpville, members of the ANC, the leading Black political party in South Africa, formed a military wing called the MK. Among its founders was Nelson Mandela, who was famously thrown in prison in 1962 for committing various acts of terrorism against the South African government. The most famous incident of said terrorism perpetrated by the MK was the Church Street Bombing of 1983. This attack consisted of a car bomb being set off in the middle of the day on a busy street. 19 people were killed and over 200 were wounded. 📷 This is but one example from a list of many similar terrorist attacks that occurred, mostly in the 1980’s. During this time, the MK also gained a reputation for torturing prisoners. On top of all this, in 1989 the South African president suffered a stroke that caused him to resign from office. F.W. De Klerk took his place after being elected by congress and was then re-elected by the electoral college. De Klerk eliminated as many of the Apartheid laws as he could and, after freeing Nelson Mandela, entered into negotiations to end Apartheid. Following the announcement of these negotiations, De Klerk’s party, the National Party, lost a national election to the pro apartheid Conservative Party. This was taken to indicate that the (White) people of South Africa did not want Apartheid to end and so De Klerk decided to hold a national referendum on whether or not to continue his negotiations to end apartheid. The referendum was conducted in 1992 and the public was taken to have voted to end Apartheid. However, the referendum has been heavily criticized on several grounds. First, the South African government owned the media and this meant that the public only got a biased presentation of one viewpoint (Schonteich et al., 2003). Secondly, western powers were expected to plunge South Africa into a recession if they voted no (Wren, 1993). Thirdly, serious accusations of voter fraud have been made. Regardless, the negotiations continued and in 1994 Apartheid was ended. Some Whites tried to resist the vote by setting up smaller areas of White control, but such efforts largely subsided after several Whites were executed on live TV by Black police officers. As one authorwrote: “the sight of three wounded AWB men pleading for their lives on live television and then shot in cold blood [by black policemen] had a powerful impact on the country’s Whites.” Following the end of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela was elected president of the new South African government.
So there's an impression left here that'll pick up on later, but to give you a hint, Faulk doesn't tell you exactly who the executed whites were.
National Success Since Apartheid Unfortunately, since Apartheid ended South Africa has declined on many metrics of national health. Under apartheid GDP per capita usually grew roughly in sync with the rest of the World. This trend began to collapse in the 1980’s following the introduction of sanctions against the country. After apartheid ended, GDP per capita not only stagnated but, in fact, fell such that South Africans were poorer in 2002 than they were in 1982. 📷 World Bank
Of course what it also shows is an eventual recovery.
What he doesn't show is this disparity occurring before Apartheid ended, almost 10 years prior in fact.
Under Apartheid, South Africa had a longer average life expectancy than Sub-Saharan Africa generally did. Since Apartheid ended, life expectancy has stagnated and fallen such that life expectancy was almost 10 years higher in 1992 than it was in 2002. 📷 World Bank
Murder rates in South Africa began to rise in the 1970’s. Given the national turmoil of this time period, an increase in crime is unfortunate but not surprising. Perhaps less obvious, however, is the fact that murder rates exploded following the end of apartheid. As can be seen, this has disproportionately impacted Whites. 📷 (Thompson, 2004)
That is actually not supported by the data. Coloreds in South Africa make up roughly the same percentage as whites, yet their victimizations are night and day. That's actually the point of the study.
These declines have not just impacted White South Africans. The wealth gap between Blacks and Whites in South Africa was slightly lower under Apartheid than it is today. 📷(Leibbrandt et al., 2012) This, taken in conjunction with the fact that GDP growth has slowed since Apartheid ended, implies that both Blacks and Whites in south Africa would likely be richer today if Apartheid were still in place. Moreover, Black South Africans reported feeling less happy and less satisfied with their lives in 2008 than they did in the early 1980’s. 📷(Moller, 1998; Gaibie and Davids, 2009) 📷(Moller, 1998; Gaibie and Davids, 2009) Thus, it seems that the economic, physical, and psychological health of South Africa has gotten worse since Apartheid ended.
The 1980s, mind you, being Apartheid at it's economical weakest compared to previous decades, going towards the trend of less government restrictions.
Kill the Boers Anti-White racism has also risen since Apartheid ended. Today, there is a wave of mass murder being waged against the descendants of the Boers.This is how the situation was described by the president of Genocide Watch: “Afrikaner farm owners are being murdered at a rate four times the murder rate of other South Africans, including Black farm owners. Their families are also subjected to extremely high crime rates, including murder, rape, mutilation and torture of the victims. South African police fail to investigate or solve many of these murders, which are carried out by organized gangs, often armed with weapons that police have previously confiscated. The racial character of the killing is covered up by a SA government order prohibiting police from reporting murders by race. Instead the crisis is denied and the murders are dismissed as ordinary crime, ignoring the frequent mutilation of the victims’ bodies, a sure sign thatthese are hate crimes*.*However, independent researchers have compiled accurate statistics demonstrating convincingly that murders among White farm owners occur at a rate of 97 per 100,000 per year, compared to 31 per 100,000 per year in the entire South African population, making the murder rate of White SA farmers one of the highest murder rates in the world.”Leon Parkin & Gregory H. Stanton, President – Genocide Watch14 August 2012 These murders are not only common place, they are also gruesome. Attie Potgieter was stabbed over 150 times while his wife and daughter, who were later executed, were made to watch. 📷 Dr. Louis John Botha was thrown into a crocodile pit and eaten alive. 📷 As a final example, consider the Vianafamily. The father and daughter were shot, the mother was raped and killed, and the son was drowned to death in a bath of boiling water. 📷 These murders reflect a more general anti-White sentiment which is ubiquitous in South Africa. Even leaders of the ANC, the party now in charge of the South African government, literally sang songs about killing White people as recently as 2012. “South Africa’s ruling party on Tuesday defended the singing of an apartheid-era song with the words “Kill the Boer” in a row that has raised fears of increasing racial polarisation.” –Govender (2010) White South Africans are also discriminated against by various South African institutions in order to make up for the damage that Apartheid institutions are thought to have done to Blacks. First, there is discrimination in University admissions. Consider, for instance, this report on the University of Cape Town: “The way in which the university has achieved this diversity, however, is somewhat controversial. To be admitted, white students must score the equivalent of straight A’s. Meanwhile, black and mixed-race students can get in with plenty of B’s. The University of Cape Town doesn’t make this policy a secret — admission cutoffs are listed by race in the prospectus.” –Kelto (2011) Employers are encourage by the state to discriminate against Whites as well. The Black Economic Empowerment law set up the following point system in the country: “Points are based on the percentage of blacks and other non-white ethnic groups in the company’s ownership and the skills training it gives to people in these groups. For companies, having a good BEE scorecard is often essential for business. The higher the BEE score they have, the more access they get to public markets and contracts.” –Iob (2013) Finally, in may of this year South Africa passed the “land expropriation bill” which allows the government to force White South Africans to sell their land to the government at a price that the government decides. The rational behind this law is that it can undue the redistribution of land into the hands of whites which was solidified by the Land Act of 1913. These factors have led White South Africans to abandon South Africa in large numbers. Since Apartheid ended, over half a million White South Africans have left the country. To put that in perspective, there are less than 5 million Whites in the whole country. Some White South Africans are unable to emigrate on their own and are asking Western nations for Refugee status. The Canadian government has recently acquiesced to this request and allowed two White South Africans to come to Canada as refugees. “31-year-old Brandon Huntley from Cape Town said he was constantly called a “white dog” and “settler” by Black South Africansback home. He was also robbed 7 times and stabbed three times by Black South Africans since his home country ended Apartheid in 1994. “There’s a hatred of what we did to them and it’s all about the color of your skin,” Huntley told the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board.The evidence Huntley provided showed “a picture of indifference and inability or unwillingness of the South African government to protect White South Africans from persecution by African South Africans,” Board Chairman William Davis said.” – White South Africans are also asking for refugee status from the EU which, in recent years, has allowed tens of thousands of middle eastern and African refugees to cross its borders.
I won't sugarcoat the the economic and social issues of whites currently in South Africa. The problem is, aside from the victimization of Afrikaners (farmers specifically) by murders, the general economic position of whites in South Africa hasn't changed. As for white emigration, his figure combines the total number of whites (roughly 300k) that have left between 1986 (that is before apartheid fell) and 2000, and roughly 300k between 2000-2015. Overall, the white population only slightly shrank between 1980 and 2015.
If conquest is not a legitimate means to acquire land, the Zulu and similar Bantu tributes did not justly own South African land, nor did any other tribe of the last few hundred years. After all, this land was conquered from Khoisan and older Bantu tribes. Moreover, if the Zulu did steal the land, it is not clear that Apartheid was in the wrong for taking it from them. Is it wrong to steal something which is stolen from the thief who stole it? If, on the other hand, conquest is a valid way to acquire land, then White South Africans had a perfectly legitimate claim on it. This might be taken to imply that there is also nothing wrong with modern Black South Africans taking land from Whites. However, conquering land via war is not the same thing as using a false political narrative about the supposed negative effects of apartheid to take land. Moreover, forcing White people into a society that hates and mass murders them is not analogous to putting Blacks in bantustans which, as we have seen, were not as bad as they are often made out to be. I consider the morality of conquest to be a difficult question and I won’t try to resolve it here. What I will say is that it is very hard to come up with any principled moral answer which would justify the totality of what is being done to White South Africans.
Where to begin?
Assuming the validity of the right of conquest, that only applies to the right to claim land or wield power over it. That doesn't exempt moral considerations on particular acts directed towards the previous occupiers. That is, if the Zulu Empire lead to the displacement and abuse of other groups like the Khoisan, then they can be morally judged on those grounds. Same can be easily said for victims of the Anglo-Boer wars under concentration camps.
"White South Africans" didn't conquer Bantu lands leading to their annexation, it was the British specifically. Boers more so are responsible for the displacement of the Khoisan in the Western Cape.
"Forced Removals" weren't the direct result of being conquered, annexation was. Forced removals, then, can be viewed as a separate act apart of conquest from war and as a decision by an already formed government. It was these laws that form the basis of land claims, not British colonization in and of itself.
There is noting "false" that was validly demonstrated regarding the effect of Bantustans had on the black population. Nor were the Bantustans "not that bad", as most moved out by 1986.
Political Violence Another important question is whether or not the political violence initiated by the MK against White South Africans was justified. Apartheid set up various laws, some of which I would consider unjust. Most importantly, Apartheid severely restricted the right of Blacks to protest. This was the justification that Mandela used for resorting to violence. He had no other choice. This may be true, and if you think that apartheid’s policies were sufficiently horrible this may justify violence, but there is no way that the indiscriminate violence against innocent and random White south Africans that the MK engaged in can be justified. Their activities, especially in the 1980’s, were morally equivalent to any other act of mass murder. Further more, as we have seen, Apartheid’s actions were not nearly as bad as they are often thought to have been.
This is what I was alluding to earlier, that terrorism among the Anti-Apartheid movement was directed towards whites mostly. While there were indeed anti-white motivation fueling the movement, the overwhelming majority were black. See here for an understanding. This whole section is a strawman.
Evaluating Apartheid Even if Apartheid improved the material and psychological conditions of Black Africans,
It didn't. De facto economic integration efforts was what lead to observed improvements.
On the other hand, the material benefit that Whites brought to South Africa, and Africa generally, was truly immense. Were it not for colonialism, most Africans alive today would have never even been born.
In South Africa, that population growth came from a reaction of concentrated poverty, not wealth.
Fundamentally, the problem of African colonialism is the problem of multi-racialism. So long as Whites allowed Blacks to continue to live in Africa, which could have only been prevented with a massive and horrific genocide, Black Africans were going to resent them.
Except in Botswana, and to a lesser extent Namibia. Both with significantly different approaches to race relations.
As Apartheid shows us, this is true even if the Whites improve the conditions of the Blacks. There will always been a feeling that Whites do not belong there and Blacks will always resent the invariably superior material conditions of Whites.
Probably because many were removed from and forced away from Urban living.
Colonialism of the United States only worked because there aren’t many Indians around anymore.
I get the feeling this is part of his Bitchute video on the topic.
The kind of colonialism practiced in Africa in which Whites would be permanent but ruling minorities in a majority Black nation was never sustainable without an uncomfortable measure of totalitarianism and even then ethnic conflict was still common place.
The violence surrounding colonialism was rarely, if ever, one sided. Today, there is a massive level of systemic racism against White South Africans. The fact that this racism is not covered in Western media offers a stark contrast with how the media covered the sins of Apartheid.
The sources of the farm murders and affirmative actions were News24, a relatively left leaning SA news source, NPR, Reuters, Voice of America and the Dailymail. Only one source was an "alternative one", which reported the murder a whole year after News24 did and relied on a mainstream Afrikaner-news report. These get attention by "Western media".
Overall, the problems of South Africa, both in terms of Blacks resenting their White rulers under Apartheid and Whites experiencing racism today, come from the inherent difficulties of having a multi-racial society. In this sense, the story of South Africa contains lessons not only about colonialism but also about more general and pressing questions of immigration and diversity.
Or, you know, what happens when you don't consider the role of Black Africans in your government, unlike Botswana.
2020.09.19 21:11 Gaminglegend88yt1970 (4th week of Oct) dated M17A1 field protective mask with mostly complete kit. One thing to note is the old wireframe prescription lenses (not original to kit) these were issued to a 33 year old Male named Major Henry N. Easley in June 1967.
2020.09.19 16:15 SupSirir/soccer World Tour \#2 - Thailand - Thai Premier League
Brief History The Thai League is one of the newer leagues on our continent. We had our official league format since 1996, but it was not until 2009 that we founded the Thai League Co.,Ltd to comply with the international standard. Before all of this we had had our oldest cup, Kor Royal Cup, in a usual cup format, since 1916. The Kor Royal Cup changed to the super cup format from 1999 to 2016, in which year we scrapped the tournament. If you look into our football history, you’ll see a lot of clubs that were tied to companies, armies, or state enterprises. But since the 2000s, we have shifted toward teams that are tied to local communities. For example, Airforce United sold its right to participate in the league to Udon Thani FC, Bangkok Bank FC is now defunct, and Provincial Electric Authority FC is now named Buriram FC, etc. Only a few clubs like Police Tero and Port FC are still up and running in the top flight. While our history as a league is quite short, we still have some marks in continental football. In 1994 and 1995, Thai Farmers Bank FC (now defunct), won Asian Club Championship (now AFC Champions League). Unfortunately, apart from BEC Tero’s, now known as Police Tero, miraculous run to 02/03 AFC Champions League final, no team ever came close. Big Clubs’ History and Rivalries Buriram United, formerly named Buriram PEA, was founded in 1970. Buriram is located in the lower northeastern part of Thailand. Their homeground is Chang ARENA (Thunder Castle Stadium), the first stadium in Thailand that has no running tracks between the pitch and the stand, and is regarded as one of the best private-owned stadiums in Thailand. Since the inception of Thai League, they’ve won 7 league titles, 4 FA Cups, 5 League Cups, and have managed domestic treble three times in 2011, 2013, and 2015. 2015 is also one of their best seasons ever as they also finished the league invincible. Their main rival is Muangthong United. Muangthong United, or SCG Muangthong UTD, while their achievements pale in comparison with Buriram’s, they are still regarded as one of the biggest clubs in Thailand. With 4 league titles and 2 League Cups, they are one of the most successful clubs in the Thai League era. They once had an invincible season in 2012, the first ever in Thai football’s history. A bit of fun fact about Muangthong. In 2011-12, Robbie Fowler agreed to play for them. And after the sacking of Henrique Calisto, their head coach at that time, Fowler was made PlayeCoach at Muangthong. Another big club is Chonburi FC. Their trophy cabinet is quite small, having only 1 league title and 1 FA Cup to show, but mainly because they came second five times in the league. In all those five instances, either Buriram or Muangthong came first. Chonburi are on a decline recently. After they failed to win the league in 2014, finished second after the Champion, Buriram, by three points. They haven’t managed a top three finish since. You might say they are the Everton of Thailand, both are old legacy teams in mid table, wear blue shirts, and once had a connection through Chang Beer, so it’s quite fitting. These three were once rivals, but as Buriram dominated, the heated rivalries died down. Now, we still have some rivalries in the league, but mainly between the Ultras, casual fans still don’t feel those things much yet, as our football culture is not yet as strong as in Europe. I hope we will witness some strong rivalries again, right now some say Port FC vs Muangthong is quite big, but I personally don’t think they are gonna last. I hope I’m wrong. Also there might be some new big teams in a few years, because as of now, all three teams above are in mid table. Key Moments In all honesty, I don’t think there are that many memorable moments. Because since 2008, either Buriram or Muangthong have won the league, the only memorable moment for me would be last season's title race. The 2019 Thai League Title Race Standings before final game:
Buriram need to win their next away game against Chiangmai, while Chiangrai are hoping for an away win against Suphanburi and that Buriram draw/lose. Because Chiangrai have better H2H against Buriram, so if they are level, Chiangrai will win the league. Every Buriram hater is now cheering for Chiangrai. If Chiangrai win the league, this will be the first time in 2010s that Buriram have no trophies at the end of the season, and Chiangrai's first ever top flight win. Also Newin Chidchob, Buriram’s chairman, said that they would refuse to receive the Champion cup at the away stadium, and will require the FA to have the ceremony on a later date at their stadium only. As you can imagine, this sparked quite a controversy among Thai football fans, and now everyone wants a laugh. *Match Day 30, 26/10/2019* At the end of half time > Chiangmai 0 - 0 Buriram Suphanburi 1 - 1 Chiangrai At 48 min, William Henrique scores for Chiangrai > Chiangmai 0 - 0 Buriram Suphanburi 1 - 2 Chiangrai At 53 min, Nacer Barazite scores for Buriram > Chiangmai 0 - 1 Buriram Suphanburi 1 - 2 Chiangrai After that Chiangrai pulled through and would win comfortably 5-2 against Suphanburi, but Buriram are still winning and we have already entered the last few minutes of the game. Only the most hopeful would hope for a last minute goal from Chiangmai. But at the dying moment of the game, Caíque Lemes scored a header for Chiangmai and destroyed Buriram’s hope for their trophy. After the whistle, Chiangrai won the league on the merit of H2H, Buriram didn’t receive the cup at the away stadium as their chairman said. A fitting ending, at least for me. Current Season
As you can see, the big teams I mentioned above are not here, but the season just restarted so we might see some changes. Every team still has 24-25 more matches to play so anything can happen, some teams even sign new players during Covid lockdown. I really don’t know anyway for non-Thai speakers to follow the league, but if this has enough interest, I’ll post updates in the World Football thread. Sawasdee krub. **Previous posts in series**
2020.09.19 16:10 s810Old Austin Tales: North Austin Meetups of Prehistoric Eras - (4000BC - 1690AD)
The folks down at the Austin History Center are slowly scanning archival photos and adding to UNT's Portal to Texas History even in these pandemic times. Among others, there are quite a few new photos of land parade floats from the early Austin Aqua Festivals in 1962 and 63. It's disappointing to see photos like this 1963 Austin Aqua Festival parade float ignorantly depicting Native Americans in a less than flattering light. But a few of those kids dressed as stereotypical and generic 1960s natives probably had elderly relatives who remembered the time before all the tribes were ejected from this area and probably would have still thought of them as little more than savages. The photo gives context to the times in which it was taken. The Austinites of that era seem to have had less respect for those people who lived here hundreds or thousands of years before the Spanish and French started roaming around here. As a modern Austinite I don't see why this attitude should be held up. Those were humans who lived here, if even sporadically, and loved the land and the creeks and trees as much or more than you or I. They just called the landmarks different names back then. It is known that some of the tribes who used to live around here were warlike and confrontational with other tribes. My own grandmother was born in Austin in the 1930s and often told me a tall tale about a fictional battle between the Comanche and 1000 Apache warriors in the hills near Lake Travis. (sometimes the battle took place in the area around where we were sitting in traffic depending on grandma's mood) It was a Thermopylae/Alamo-like tale of outnumbered Comanche braves winning the day by running to the hill now known as Commanche Peak and waiting in ambush. But grandma often told some whoppers and that was surely one of them. I've never read about even the scantest evidence that something like that took place here, if even only in oral histories of the tribes involved. But who knows. My point is we really don't know a whole lot about what the people who lived here before everything, and what they did while they were here. Today I wanted to share some small bit of the real story of these people who lived here when real estate was free if you could keep it from the wild beasts or competing tribes. Because the real story, from what little we know of it, is really just as captivating as Grandma's tall tales were. On a related note I recently discovered the AustinFound podcast from Michael Barnes and a few other folks at The Statesman. They've been writing the good historyposts on The Statesman's Austin360.com for a while now under the same name and I've referenced them a lot here before. Michael Barnes knows his stuff. He has written a multi-volume book set called Indelible Austin and was one of the people who went on the expedition to look for traces of the 1730 Spanish mission set up somewhere in this area. In episodes 1, 6, and 27 of the podcast he talks about the three main native tribes in this area: The Apache, who considered this area the northeastern border of their roaming grounds and had mostly vacated by the 1800s, the Comanche, who were descended from the Apache(edit: fixed) Wyoming Shoshone tribe long ago in modern Utah and Wyoming and considered this area the southeastern border of their expanding roaming grounds, and the Tonkawa tribe, who were also war like but had a different culture and their own ways. They especially were early victims of the diseases brought by european contact. One thing I agree with Michael Barnes about is how The Tonkawa, despite having more of a territorial claim to the area Austin is in now than the other two tribes, are under-represented in the old chronicles written down by early white settlers. The Comanche are namedropped in the written accounts of the 1800s quite a bit for their 'depredations' on early settlers. It was the Comanche were the only tribe in this region who, for a time, rebuffed all attempts to subjugate them from Spain, Mexico, and Anglos. But the Tonkawa, on the other hand, being so few in number had to ally themselves with whites against the other two tribes. Because of this they were westernized quickly and assumed a sort of sub-caste in frontier society. Early accounts refer to them as 'Tonks' and talk in exaggerated ways about their cannibalism and wolf-worship. From what I understand the people eating only took place after winning a great battle. The tribe has a website nowadays where you can learn about their culture, their colorful traditional clothing and how it was made, and the Trail of Tears out of Central Texas. It's not often talked about what tribes were here before the Tonkawa and the Comanche and Apache. It's a topic I'm always looking to learn more about. If you've lived here a while you might have heard of the Leanderthal Lady. Her remains are estimated to be between 10000 and 13000 years old and according to this article was found with buried with a shark tooth. I've also talked about the digs at the Westcave Preserve near Hamilton Pool, and the Levi and Smith Rock Shelters, where evidence of human habitation dates back 10000 years at least. But that brings up the question: Who lived in the area in between then and the time of the Tonkawa? I know there are stories from early settlers about an 'Indian Village' of an unnamed tribe very near the old Santa Monica Springs on the Colorado River but that's about it. Well thanks to some archeological digs over the years when new stuff had been built we know about a few frequent party spots some of the people alive back then liked to congregate in. I've found archeological reports from three separate digs in spots around North Austin, which is fine because the good rock shelters appear to have been in what is now South Austin anyway... Let's start in the order the reports were made. The first concerns a site where people camped repeatedly over the course of the last 4000 years that today lies in a neighborhood near the intersection of North Lamar and Braker Lane. Back in the neighborhood is a street called Jetta Court. This neighborhood dates back to the mid to late 1960s and when built the area was already known for arrowhead deposits. In the 1980s further digs established the whole area around where Walnut Creek Park is today was once a major habitation area. But back in '68 the home builder company was partially done with the neighborhood and paid for a salvage dig after reports of trespassers "pothunting". The report from the salvage dig was published in the Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society, Volume 47, 1976 and is available in the UNT archive. You can read the whole thing if you feel like getting into the weeds. Quoting the abstract and introduction:
During the course of several weekends in 1968 and 1969, students from The University of Texas at Austin carried out test excavations at the Jetta Court site in Travis County, central Texas. These investigations constituted a salvage effort designed to obtain information on this site before it was destroyed by construction activities in a housing development. The terrace deposits at Jetta Court yielded a long Archaic sequence, including a deeply buried occupation which occurred stratigraphically below Early Archaic materials. The results of the excavations are described, and detailed analyses of the lithic debris and faunal re mains are presented. The Jetta Court site (41 TV 151) is located within the city limits of Austin, Texas, buried in terrace deposits on the west side of Walnut Creek (Figs. 1-3). The site was brought to the attention of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory (TARL) of The University of Texas at Austin in the fall of 1968 by reports of pothunting in an area slated for a housing subdivision. Inspection of the site by TARL personnel indicated that it should be tested before the planned construction activities were begun. Excavations, directed by graduate students in anthropology at The University of Texas at Austin, were carried out with volunteer help. Work was done on weekends during a period from December, 1968, to February, 1969. Since the site was unprotected during the week, numerous instances of vandalism occurred. One unit of excavation was eventually ruined, but the others were not seriously damaged. This combination of weekend excavation and weekday vandalism limited effective investigation to stratigraphic testing and backhoe trenching. Exposures of horizontal tracts were not done partly be- cause of fear that it would lead to more extensive depredations on the part of the pothunters, and partly because the site was considerably deeper than was anticipated. The writers would like to acknowledge the assistance and under- standing of Mr. Cecil Lamour, representing Conann Construction, Inc., in permitting the excavations. His patience with our backhoe operations, in particular, was most helpful.
How dramatic. Apparently someone thought there was buried treasure nearby. I wonder what could have given them that idea.. Here's a photo of the site at the time and Here's a map of the dig site with the holes marked. All of this area is built over today. The dig was done hastily and the vandalism limited the findings. The report goes on describe two burned rock midden sites located within the boundaries of the dig. These were like old campfires that had been repeatedly built over for a number of years during two different eras. Some further highlights from the report: Here's a photo of the one of the holes. There are a couple of photos of some of the lithic projectile points found in the upper, newer rock midden. Here's one. Here's another. And a couple from the lower, older midden. Here's one from the lower and here's another. There are many more photos and charts showing the finds, their classifications, and their locations in relation to one another in the layered deposits. This is how most of the rest of the report goes. There were many animal bones and shells found in some areas indicating people ate there, or used the site for industry. Here a list of animal species found in the bones they can identify. On the menu: snails, turtles, opossum, coyote, deer, bison, cow, a couple of kinds of rabbits and mice, and strangely gophers. Apparently there used to be gophers around here when the climate favored grasslands over forests. The distribution of animal bones is nicely charted here in size and age, Category A being the largest animals like bison and Category C being the smallest, such as rats and snails. The report notes that remains of small animals would degrade faster so that might skew the results. To sum it all up because it's way too long to copypaste, the two burned rock middens at Jetta Court don't contribute a whole lot of new information to the story besides offering evidence that the spot was a place for habitation. I think if I understand it correctly (correct me if I'm wrong) the lower midden dates back over 3000 years while the upper midden dates back about 2000 years. The report talks about not knowing how to classify the artifacts within the archaic period. It recommends further digs in the area but acknowledges that's probably not possible with the neighborhood going up. What the writers didn't know is that just a few years later digs would begin at many different sites in what is now Walnut Creek Park that further expanded the knowledge of that area and its earliest inhabitants. Moving on to the next site, which lies a little bit east of there at what became the Jourdan-Bachman Pioneer Farm, once an actual farm near Sprinkle now turned into a live action museum exhibit by the city which is beloved by schoolkids on field trips. It turns out that when the farm was built in the 1850s, part of the property contained a much older camp site that was favored by natives a thousand years ago. A report was written in 1994 about a dig in 1983. (PDF warning). The site of the native cultural deposits was at the southern end of the farm. Here is a map of the site in relation to the farm. The PDF isn't as copypaste friendly as the other UNT article but it's short and I can summarize the findings. It's really more of just an abstract compared to the other long report. It's worth taking the time to read if you can handle PDFs and you're interested in the history of the area at all. In the introduction they describe how the farm was bought by the Heritage Society of Austin in the 1950s and belonged to the City of Austin by 1980 as part of the same deal that established Walnut Creek Park. More than a few digs had been done in the area around there in the early 1980s. It describes 22 different ancient burials found at one nearby site. At the farm site itself there was a deposit of projectile points over a meter thick of most types found in the area during the archaic era. That brings us to the third site. called Millican Bench. Never heard of it? Me neither. It's a tiny spot just south of The Arboretum today that was obliterated by the construction of Loop 360 in the 1970s. Before the highway cut through the site, TxDot conducted a dig in 1970 and 71 on a small limestone plateau (thus the bench) where artifacts had been reported by the previous landowner. The report on the site dig is another PDF, but it was written in 2003, is very detailed, and will let me copypaste from it. Here's a map of the site showing where it was in the roadbed of modern Loop 360. Quoting from the introduction:
Located in Travis County, the Millican Bench site(41TV163) was the first archeological site excavated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT; then Texas Highway Department) as a mitigation effort for highway construction under the requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act of 1966. The excavation was conducted between September of 1970 and February of 1971under the direction of Frank Weir, then of the Texas Highway Department. In August of 2002, TxDOT contracted with the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (Work Authorization#57014PD004) to conduct an inventory and assessment of the archeological collections and documentation associated with site 41TV163, develop possible research questions that could be pursued with the site data, and to prepare the project material for permanent curation. Based on that assessment(Mahoney et al. 2003a), and following consultation with TxDOT, CAR further was directed to produce a final report.This document constitutes the final report on the TxDOT work at 41TV163. Included in this report are a description of the site, excavation procedures, and an analysis of selected components of the data collected over three decades ago. To report on excavations and analyze data collected over30 years ago presents several challenges. Foremost among these is that if one wishes to avoid a primarily historical perspective, data collected using earlier field methods to investigate earlier theoretical concerns must be molded to address current questions. In this case, the disconnect between the theoretical and methodological considerations that guided the excavation of 41TV163, which appear to have been focused on chronology and cultural history,and current research interests in Texas archeology is exacerbated by the loss of a large portion of the field notes,some photo logs, and some of the artifacts and samples during the intervening years. Nevertheless, in the assessment document (Mahoney et al. 2003a), we identified a series of current research issues that could be addressed using data generated by the work at 41TV163. These include investigating temporal changes in subsistence patterns and changes in lithic technology. In addition, we investigate several aspects of site use during the Late Prehistoric occupation of 41TV163.
So what this is saying is that basically the original field work and notes were lost and they had to reconstruct everything. I guess they thought it was worth it in scientific value to reconstruct or else maybe because it was the forerunner to TxDot's first dig. In any case the findings showed evidence of habitation a bit later than the other sites to the east. The intro continues:
Initially, seven discrete areas, designated A through G, were identified at Millican Bench. Figure 1-2 (the map linked earlier) presents a section of an aerial photo with the sketched locations of these seven areas, along with the Loop 360 center line. The photo appears to have been created at the time of the fieldwork. Area A consisted of a burned rock midden located on a topographic bench. Another probable burned rock midden, Area B, was situated on the slope and creek terrace below the bench.Located just to the west of Area B were two other areas,designated C and D. These appeared to be occupation areas with burned rock and other debris present. Three additional areas, designated E, F, and G, were located across the creek east of Areas A–D. Area E was a burned rock midden that measured approximately four meters in diameter. Area F contained a concentration of occupation refuse with burned rock and chipped stone, while Area G was a broad bedrock exposure containing scattered chipped stone debris.With the exception of Area G, where only surface collection was conducted, all areas (A through F) had some level of excavation. At 41TV163, TxDOT personnel recorded 11features, including a human burial (Feature 10) and a possible structure (Feature 3). In addition, more than 200cores, 1,400 tools, 400 projectile points, and 42,500 pieces of debitage were collected. With the exception of any evidence for Paleo-indian occupation, the 41TV163 materials seem to reflect most prehistoric periods. Collected projectile point types thought to be diagnostic include Wells, Early Split Stem, Early Triangular, Martindale, and Uvalde forms dating to much of the Early Archaic (8000–6000 BP); Nolan,Travis, and a single Andice point, all dating to the Middle Archaic (6000–4000 BP); Bulverde, Pedernales, Williams,Lange, Marshall, Montell, Castroville, Ensor, Frio, Fairland,and Darl forms dating throughout the Late Archaic (4000–1250 BP); and Scallorn points, dating to the early portion of the Late Prehistoric (1250–700 BP). A small amount of historic and/or modern material was also collected, though it is not considered in any detail in this report.
Long story short, this area was frequently visited from about 4000BC-1300AD, mostly toward the latter date, and shows different patterns in habitation indicating the different tribal customs in use at that point. In addition to rock middens and lots of projectile points and rock flakes, an ancient human burial was found. Also many animal bones like the other sites indicating different eating areas. Well there you have a few stories of the people who lived here before recorded history. I hope one day more local history writers and bloggers can address this topic in more depth than I have time for here today. I know there are a lot of people out there like me who would love to know more. Time is way short so I've got to wrap this up quick. I obviously don't have any related photos from prehistory but have some newly added old Aqua Fest photos from the UNT archive for Bonus Pics today. Bonus Pic #1 - "Photograph of two people on a mini pool at the Aqua Festival Land Parade event" - August 3, 1962 Bonus Pic #2 - "Photograph of group of people at Aqua Fest event" - 1963 Bonus Pic #3 - "Photograph of the scenery at Aqua Fest event. A child is seen seated wearing a cape and crown. " - 1963
See the original article and the garbage it inspired. If you were to find the about page of his blog, you would know that he defends the blog from promoting white supremacy by simply reporting the facts. A strict reading could put together that it doesn't mean that one couldn't defend or rationalize past systems of white supremacy. I've recently revisited and clarified the issues of his Slave trade article, and soon I plan on talking about multiple issues with his slavery article as well, so today I will do the same with this one. The running theme of the piece is that disparities during Jim Crow either couldn't be explained specifically by segregation, or that disparities came larger after the 1960s thus segregation as a factor is ruled out. The problems are that -
For each aspect that he measures, he doesn't tie it to a specific expert claim on how Segregation played a role in the disparity.
He doesn't account for post-1960s factors that causes the persisting or larger disparity, and assumes post-1960s is a systematically neutral control.
For certain disparities he compares, they are inappropriate and are not indicative of what he purports.
And for the record, no, he doesn't actually talk about voting or juror restriction by race. The article- We first get a rationalization of his analysis.
When I was younger, I would read world atlases. And sometimes I would come to an article, say an article on the country Colombia, and it would say that Colombia is a world leader in coffee production, then list off some other “cash crops”. Then it would go into the growing textiles sector, and mention that it has some problem with debt. Maybe it’s a leading producer of phosphates as well or something. And if you read all of this qualitative, subjective description, you would never realize that Colombia was poor. It’s not until you got to “per capita GDP” that you would discover that it was $3,000 per capita. You could also have someone qualitatively describe a football game between Auburn and Alabama. And they could do highlights, and describe some of the big plays, and you wouldn’t know that Alabama completely steamrolled Auburn until you looked at the box score. Or imagine if your son was “describing” qualitatively and subjectively how he was doing in his classes. As a parent you don’t care, you want to see the damn grades. And so the effects of segregation on blacks. What does the data say? Because in school when segregation is taught, it’s the equivalent of describing a football game by just looking at the highlights and not the box score. It’s cat-lady storytime. Well, there are a few big go-to topics that popped into my mind to try to quantify the effects of segregation on blacks: cops and courts, schools, income and lynching. So that’s what I go-to’d.
1. Incarceration rate The incarceration rate for blacks relative to whites has increased at least since 1930, probably long before that. So in terms of blacks being targeted for being sent to prison, it looks like they were substantially less targeted compared to today. So if the legal systems were unfair during segregation, they appear to be even more unfair today. Or perhaps they weren’t unfair during segregation, are unfair today, or perhaps the laws are different today in a way that disparately impacts blacks more than they did in the past. There are all sorts of things we can speculate, but it’s not immediately or obviously apparent, from the data, that the legal system was particularly keen on incarcerating blacks compared to today.
So for those of you more keen on race and mass incarceration, you would know that this is particularly strong in Northern Urban regions rather than the South. A whole demographic transition occurred that accounted for it. Not to mention he never actually looked for studies that purport to address biases during Jim Crow. What does he find through is roundabout ways?
2. Prison sentences For prison sentences, the numbers have been remarkably stable. When you look at length of prison terms for blacks compared to whites after the FIRST release from prison, it’s very close. The first release data is important because none of these are repeat offenders. Repeat offenders get more time, and blacks are more likely to be repeat offenders. That said, based on the data below, blacks serve roughly ~15% longer prison terms for their first term. It could be because the crimes blacks commit within each category are, on average, more severe. It could be racial bias on the part of judges. Or it could be that blacks have worse courtroom behavior, as when IQ is controlled for, the racial gap in prison sentences goes away. But what you don’t see is blacks having longer prison sentences during segregation. Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in State and Federal Prisons Now what if we looked at median prison time served just in the South, and back in 1937 – smack in the middle of “Jim Crow” – and included repeat offenders, of which black inmates are a higher proportion today? The result is not that much different from the entire US today: Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in 14 Southern States in State and Federal Prisons Remember, the 1937 data is JUST from the South, supposedly the hot seat of bigotry, and includes repeat offenders. Homicide data is an unweighted average of each category. In 1937 and 1952 they used Murder and Manslaughter, in 1964 they just had Homicide, and in 2009 they had Murder, Negligent Manslaughter and Non-Negligent Manslaughter. In case you think I am cherry-picking the years to paint a particular narrative, these are literally just the years used in the Bureau of Justice report I am citing. And so what we can see is that the black-white incarceration gap is wider today than it was in 1930. In addition, the racial gap in sentence length for first offenders does not appear to have changed at all. Even the data that INCLUDED repeat offenders just in the South in 1937 doesn’t differ that much from the first-time offender data nationally and later. And so this makes the idea that the current US legal system was more biased against blacks during segregation than it is today SEEM false.
So this is a good example of a data point that doesn't correspond to a specific Civil Rights claim for Jim Crow relative to the post-1960s. Mass incarceration is usually shown as being a post 1960s phenomenon of bias as a particular, in connection to Blacks increasing presence in the North. His source supports it. On page 88.
The median time served for the total was 17 days. For blacks the median was 2 days longer, 19 days. Interestingly, there were larger differences between whites and blacks in time served in the North than in the South. The median time served in the North for whites was 18 days and for blacks a full week longer, 25 days. In the South the median was 17 days for blacks and 16 days for whites. Looking at time served by offense, these differences continue.
Typical civil rights claims are in regard the lack of Black Jurors deals with not simply length of prison time but biases towards choosing conviction by a white jury relative to a comparable white defendant, which this doesn't study. Therefore, the proper way how to study this would be conviction rates in the same region overtime, such as the South, and compared between different types of juries and defendants. I lack data on this, but one form of bias I have found was application of the death Penalty for rape in the South from the 1930s to the 1960s was harsher not just for Black Criminals, but for Black criminals accused ofraping whites. In further detail, 13% of Black rapists in 11 southern states received the death penalty compared to 2% of whites. Decreases in overall non-white (likely black) executions, by his source, decreased sharply after the 1960s. Overtime, rates of executions decreased even though crime increased into this period. Mind you, there were death penalty changes around this time. This source, btw, contains a variety of measurements by race during Jim Crow into the present that could suggest bias outside of merely prison sentences.
3. Lynching A related topic to this is lynching. From Richard M. Perloff, Professor of Communication at Cleveland State University: “Approximately 4,742 individuals were lynched between 1882 and 1968; of the victims, 3,445 or 73 percent were Black.” All lynchings were in response to a claimed offense, such as a rape or stealing cattle. Blacks were 72.65% of all recorded lynchings while being ~26.87% of the population of the South at the time. The Black population of the Southern US 1880-1970 averages 26.87% at each decade. And so based on their population alone, if lynchings were race-neutral, and we knew nothing about race differences in violent crime going in, we would expect 26.87% of all lynchings to be of blacks. Blacks comprised 72.65% of all lynchings, giving them a representation 2.70 times their population. However, according to wikipedia, most lynchings occurred between 1882 and 1920, and during that time period the average black population was 31.76% of the southern US population. Using this number, blacks as a percentage of lynchings are only 2.29 times their percentage of the population. If we split the difference and just say that the black population of the south was 29.32% of the total population, then blacks as a percentage of lynchings was 2.48 times their percentage of the population. By comparison, in 2010, blacks comprised 12.6% of the total US population, but were 38.13% of the population charged for violent crimes, giving them a representation 3.03 times their population. And so by raw numbers the lynch mobs appear to be slightly less racially targeting than the current US legal system is. Here are those numbers put in a table:
So when I first read this I thought he was comparing lynchings to police shootings. The second time shows me how asinine he is. This is a good example of an inappropriate comparison. Being charged with a crime isn't the same as a lynching, lynchings are categorized by the source he originally used for sentencing as an execution, one of the trends that decreased in rates for blacks and as established was higher in the South in ways suggestive of bias. From his source-
Almost three-fourths (73 percent) of those lynched between 1890 and 1962 (the date of the last recorded lynching) were black, and in the same period, 54 percent of those executed were nonwhite. About 90 percent of those dying under State authority were executed for homicide. Only 41 percent of illegal lynchings were for homicide (Tables 2-1 and 2-2).
This is more or less consistent with my studies showing that, in the South, rape (the next largest portion of lynching offenses After Homicide) was disproportionately applied to black men with death. Lynchings, as well decreased in accordance with campaigning against it as established in my Dwight Murphey post. This would be an example of civil rights interacting with oppression.
4. Income This is where arguments regarding the negative effects of segregation start to have some backing in data. Looking at census data from 1948, we can see that black income as a proportion of white income went from around 44% in 1948 to about 80% in 2000. This looks like a massive effect from desegregation on it’s face: 📷 However, there is some interesting data from 1880. If you just look within regions, the racial gap is much less. At that time, black workers earned on median 37% of what white workers earned. However, if you just looked at the south, blacks earned 58% of what white workers earned. So just with that regional control we’re already almost half way to the current black-white income ratio. Population and wage income by race and region in 1880 But the paper did something else – it looked at black labor income relative to whites, but just looked a rural southern whites and blacks, and only looked at labor income. And in that instance, black income was 89% of white income: 📷 And so when you look at the same region, and the same kind of work, and just compare the wages of workers, the black-white income gap in the rural South was only 11%, lower than it is today. And that difference could very plausibly be due to blacks having fewer skills on average in 1880. I would be interested to see similar thin slices just looking at urban blacks in the south vs. urban whites in the south, and urban blacks in the north to urban whites in the north. I suspect that the more you held constant region and urban/rural divide, the smaller the racial gap would be. Which is to say, that it seems like much of the black-white income gap could have been a function of blacks living in rural areas (which were poorer back then) and living in the south (which was poorer back then). In addition, we can see that the narrowing of the black-white income gap roughly corresponds with blacks moving out of the south. This is not a 1:1 correlation, but it is does suggest that simply moving out of the south), which began in earnest around 1910, is part of the explanation for the narrowing of the black-white income gap: 📷 And in the north, where more of the blacks were slaves who had earned their freedom before 1865, black wages as a proportion of white wages were higher. In fact blacks in the north were wealthier than whites in the south for quite some time. Moreover, the narrowing of the black-white income gap at the national level occurred almost entirely during segregation. So to say that the smaller amount of narrowing that occurred following desegregation was in fact a result of desegregation is something that sounds kinda plausible – there’s certainly a little story you can tell – but there’s very little data for it. The most you could say is that there was a brief acceleration of the narrowing of the black-white income gap immediately after 1965, but that could be a coincidence, and even if you want to say it was a result of the civil rights act, then the acceleration versus a continuation of the previous trend is still only going to be like 2%. Now as for why the black-white income gap narrowed from 1948 (at least) to 2000, that’s another topic. I suspect much of it has to do with the economic rise of the south and the migration of blacks away from the rural economy. Also this higher income may not have corresponded with a rise in living standards relative to whites since the cost of living may have increased, but that’s more speculative. But desegregation doesn’t appear to have any relevance to it. So even the narrowing of the black-white income gap, long touted as prime evidence that segregation was previously suppressing black wages, the evidence is not so clear on that.
So, he decreased the gap however in a way that was not applied to the modern gap, therefore makes his comparison null. He spends most of this section explaining factors pertaining to geography and the like explaining the gap, even though it's existence is tied to both slavery and the economic and educational limitations of the South for Blacks. This can be seen in the lack of second generation benefits of white migrants relative to black migrants, those born in the North being positively selected for those returning to the South, and the steeper reduction in poverty among southern Blacks due to migrants that returned to the South. Likewise, despite his claims that Northern Blacks being richer than Southern Whites, he doesn't produce a chart or study showing that.
5. Wealth and Employment Two more things to consider is that up until the 1950’s blacks had employment rates similar to that of whites. And the unemployment rate in blacks grew much more after 1965: 📷 And in terms of wealth, black wealth as a proportion of white wealth has remained stagnant since 1963: Moreover, I would say that the absolute disparity is more important than the black-white ratio. Because lets say you have $10 and Bob has $100. That’s a $90 gap. Depending on your job, that’s a day’s wage, or half a day’s wage. Now if you have $100 and Bob has $900, now you’re looking at multiple days’ wage. And so on and so on. So even though the relation is the same, the practical importance of the gap is growing. Also just the total dollar amount difference is increasing. And these are all in “2013 dollars”, which adjusts for inflation. And so when people say that the relative economic situation of blacks has improved relative to whites since segregation, they’re looking at one thing: nominal income at the national level. They’re not looking at employment, at wealth, or how much, if at all, the income gap has narrowed when controlling for what region of the country we’re looking at, or if it’s urban or rural.
While this is worth pointing out, it fails to account for complex factors of the great migration. While gains were present, unemployment increased due to urban living and relatively higher demands in skill compared to the South. This can be seen by actually referencing the study he pulls the chart from, where changes in unemployment occur earlier and become starker outside of the South. What is also interesting his how an earlier study done by one of the researchers of the 1999 study he cites notes how human capital can't explain as much of the gap in the North as it can in the South.
6. Schools Another argument that segregation depressed black economic success is their lower school funding. On average, from 1890 to 1950, the average of how much each state spent on black schools as a proportion of what they spent on white schools was 56.96%. So they had less funding. But funding for what? For “better teachers”? What’s a “better teacher”? What has been found in the US is that increased real spending on schools has not increased overall performance since the 1970s, and more importantly voucher studies have shown that the school an individual goes to has no real impact on either GPA, standardized test scores or future college attendance. So the fact that additional funding didn’t matter in 1970 is one thing. But did it matter from 1870 to 1954? Well, we don’t have regular standardized tests from that time period, but we do have a nationally representative IQ test done in 1917 for all US army conscripts for World War 1. In it blacks scored a median of 83 compared to the white score that was set to 100. Today the black median is still at 85. Okay, two points. And my guess is they were hollow for “g” anyway. Certainly there were journalists at the time who did “investigative journalism” and wrote anecdotal reports of how bad the black schools were. Michael Moore does “investigative journalism” today too about how great the Cuban healthcare system is. Walter Duranty visited the USSR in the 1930s and came back writing glowing reviews of the benevolent, if firm, policies of Stalin. Maybe they were telling the truth, maybe they were making things up, who knows. Black schools were probably worse But the question is how much worse really? And for most people, did it even matter? Most of what people learn in school they forget anyway, so aside from literacy and basic math, the practical importance of school would be minimal for most people at that time. And the culture of school credentials as a signal to employers hadn’t developed yet, so at the time any “educational disadvantages” blacks had, whatever they were and if any, would not matter in terms of credential-signaling because that hadn’t developed yet, and in terms of knowledge beyond basic literacy and math – that all gets forgotten anyway.
He could've mentioned the Coleman Report but didn't. This is a pretty major study in this particular field of social science, so for Faulk to miss something crucial to grounding his point only demonstrates his lack of familiarity with the material.
I'm going to to assume, since the link is dead, that the studies referenced in that link doesn't account for how money is spent.
His study cites work from a cosumer behavior course, not actual studies on schools.
A recent study shows that for Jim Crow, school quality accounts for the majority of the wage gap for the era.
Previous data given regarding the Great Migration would indicate that education and a market to use it made generational different for blacks, even considering selection.
7. Countrymen? This section is a bit of a digression. In a broader sense, blacks weren’t seen as legitimate countrymen to some extent for some time in the region. And so since the blacks were viewed as “foreigners” to southern whites, who to some extent viewed northern whites as foreigners as well, they didn’t think they owed the blacks equal school funding any more than they owed people from Peru or Romania or China equal school funding. I.e. the black-white gap in school funding meant as much to them as the american-chinese gap in school funding, as both the Chinese and the blacks were foreign to the southern whites. Now you can have whatever opinion you want about it, and say that blacks were rightful countrymen of southern whites, and really pound your fists in self-righteous certainty about it because you “know it to be true”. That’s certainly your viewpoint. But understand that it is just your viewpoint, and when you realize that the southern whites viewed blacks the way we look at illegal immigrants today, and that the times during which either repatriation of blacks to Africa or creating a separate black country out of land in the US were serious proposals were still in living memory at the time. Today blacks have been part of the US for so long that such proposals probably seem bizarre to you. And they would bizarre and cruel if implemented today. But also remember that the US had to impose military governments in the south in order to pass the 14th amendment that gave the blacks citizenship. And Oregon, New Jersey and Ohio renounced their ratification of the 14th amendment after the fact in protest of this action. Obviously is was a symbolic gesture, but it showed that opposition to the way the 14th amendment was passed wasn’t considered some kooky fringe idea at the time. Of course it is now because if you bring up the use of military governments in passing the 14th amendment – well, “only racists talk about that”, so it just gets dismissed. But yes, understand that the 14th amendment was seen like granting “amnesty” to the illegals is today – it would be creating an alternative method of granting citizenship for a specific group of non-citizens in the US today. (And the fact that more whites supported granting citizenship to the black slaves at the time than supporting granting amnesty to illegals today is support for a theory I have about whites in the past being more “neurologically left-wing” even if they would be considered today to hold “far-right” positions by today’s standards.)
Despite whatever perceptions American whites had about Americans blacks, it doesn't change the facts were that blacks were not comparable to the Chinese at the time. The cultural gaps and their economic history on a racial basis doesn't justify it.
The basis of historical relativism in this case was seeming argued further in his MLK video, now deleted. That is, as argued by others before, whites didn't have to pay taxes for Black schools. This causes obvious problems as the average black had only limited wealth to tax in large part due to limited skills.
Faulk's self prophesied Conclusion- So, what do we learn from his conclusions? He bizarrely begins with a tangent on the Zimmerman and Wilson trials and the correlated of media knowledge. Some excerpts.
The jurors certainly knew more facts about each case than the general public did. Moreover, whites are more likely to believe Zimmerman and Wilson were justified, and whites do better on tests of current events knowledge. In addition, males, who do better on current events knowledge tests than females, also were more satisfied with the Zimmerman verdict than women, and women do worse on current events knowledge tests. Also, people with higher education levels approved the verdict as well. Thus, all three factors that correlate with general political and current events knowledge (being white, being male and having lots of time in school) also correlate with approving the Zimmerman trial verdict. And the people who had the MOST knowledge – the jurors – unanimously found Zimmerman not guilty. If you go by the literature in news media talking about “institutional racism” and “white privilege”, it’s not immediately obvious that the aggregate of all media is any less obsessed with the plight of the coloreds than they were in 1964. Maybe they were, but I have no way to really tell.
Do you see it? Do you see that lack of any real transition? Maybe some further comment can help.
But lets say Derrick Wilson killed “the gentle giant” in 1961. There was no internet in 1961, what you knew about the events was what a few major news outlets chose to report. As it happens, a jury also found J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant not guilty of murder in their killing of Emmett Till. And what do you know about that event? Do the facts you know of the Emmett Till verdict seem to paint a one-sided story to where it is unbelievable, yes, unbelievable that a jury would find Bryant and Milam not guilty?
Once again we have a comparison that isn't proper. The modern day examples leaves no ambiguity as to who killed who, it was a matter of whether the killing was justified or not. The Emmett Till situation was vastly different, since the matter of whether or not Till was killed, whether or not Milam and Bryant were guilty, or exactly what happened between Till and Bryant in the store. Her own account only goes as far as to say that she was grabbed by the waist, while press releases by the defense/police was explicitly more violent. Both stories differ from her original account to her lawyers. Even the officer who initially believed that the body belonged to Till changed his mind when the town's reputation began to be tarnished. Furthermore, even if we are to treat the Till case like the modern day examples, it only shows the hairiness of the case itself. Despite the defense being that Till is not confirmed dead, and that the brothers were innocent of murder, part of their defense regarding Till's actions and the release of Louis Till's rape record by politicians shows a blatant message. That even if the brothers killed Till, it was justified despite nonetheless being illegal. Anyone, however, can read the various sources that talks about the issue at length. Personally I have Devery Anderson's most recent book.
Because we all know that the courts in the South were incredibly unfair to the blacks? Except there’s no real data to support that at the time,
In regards to death penalties, legal and illegal, for interracial rape, we do. This is supported, along with the data, In regards to changing testimonies in the case of Till, from the police, we do. From the fact that shortly afterward another white on black murder with a white witness (and multiple black ones) claiming otherwise. Said white was not only a friend of the defendants of the Till case, but was defended by the same officer who doubted the corpse's identity. Point is that an entire survey of the south as a premise of bias is unnecessary (though supportive) of bias. The specific town where the crime took place has plenty of evidence of bias during the trial stemming from community values.
and victim surveys from modern times correspond with the police arrest rates, and police are more likely to kill a white person in any given arrest situation, are more likely to shoot blacks in simulations, and the black percentage of killing cops is higher than their percentage of being killed by cops. And in fact the black incarceration rate relative to whites is HIGHER than it was during segregation.
Irrelevant to the context of Till, a circumstance so legally unique from the above examples it shows Faulk's ignorance. The only connection is the matter of white credibility in modern settings verses in the context of a particular case.
As shown in previous articles, modern “institutional racism” in terms of police and court bias, callbacksand educationalopportunities are very easily revealed to be phantasms – or at the very least the issue of whether or not they exist is much more complex than the basic statistics you hear on tumblr and huffpo posts would suggest.
Both articles are shitty, see United Left on the school vouchers argument.
Recent studies have shown that residential racial segregation has increased in the United States. This is an improvement over older studies which simply looked at cities and the percentage of each race in the cities. These newer methods actually look at the likelihood of you having a neighbor of a different race, and find that racial segregation is increasing.
So it's basically comparing two different types of "segregation", the conventional method comparing pre-1960s trends nonetheless decreasing.
We already know that schools are more segregated than they were during the late 1960s. Now this is a profound thing; you’ve been to school. You had first hand experience with how racially segregated they were. THAT was close to what it was like during Jim Crow that we hear so many stories about. So… how segregated did it seem?
In other places on this site, Sean and I make arguments about how currently, blacks and hispanics are not getting a raw deal in employment, courts or education. But what surprised me was just how much, looking into the past, the old days seem so similar to today in terms of the lot of blacks compared to whites. They are drawn parallel. The past is not far away, it’s right here. 60 years ago was yesterday.
Only your superficial understanding of the 1960s, or any decade before.
2020.09.19 07:21 linay6231Alejandro Jodorowsky Finds the Dune Trailer Predictable
The Chilean-French filmmaker tried to adapt Frank Herbert’s novel but couldn’t, and now he just gives his best wishes for the success of Villeneuve’s upcoming film. As promised, Warner Bros. released the trailer of Denis Villeneuve’s upcoming film “Dune,” the latest adaptation of Frank Herbert’s novel, which is now a Christmas tentpole. Alejandro Jodorowsky tried to adapt Herbert’s story in 1970 in which he was not successful because of financial issues (the saga which has been relayed in a 2013 documentary “Jodorowsky’s Dune”), and now in a recent interview with France’s Premiere Magazine, he reflected his thoughts on the newly released trailer and wished good luck to Denis and the entire production staff. In his comment, Jodorowsky remarked that though the scenes are really good, the money which made the film very expensive did nothing about its predictability. He added again that there wasn’t any “surprise” that the trailer threw at him. Denis Villeneuve’s Dune looks pretty much the same in “form,” as did the other on-screen adaptations of Frank Herbert’s novel. He said that the setup, the lighting, and the acting looks pretty predictable. https://preview.redd.it/uozqolakh1o51.jpg?width=1500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a37af4b643c115c88c78c85953a6316b5b12f159 He continued by expounding his opinion of industrial cinema that Villeneuve’s “Dune” is a part of. He clearly stated that industrial cinema is made solely for the purpose of entertainment, and for the industry, everything else is secondary when compared to money and profit. He compared the industrial cinema with auteur cinema and said that whatever mainstream film industry does, it promotes entertainment with it. It is not built with the purpose of changing society or humanity. However, in an interview with IndieWire in August, Alejandro Jodorowsky was skeptical about anyone pulling off such a film. David Lynch tried to make it in 1984, which resulted in a monumental failure starting with Lynch taking his name from the credits after he was denied his director cut and his total disapproval of the theatrical cut. In the interview with the premiere magazine, Jodorowsky also gave his insights on the book. He said that Frank Herbert’s book is like a Proustian narrative so much so that despite it belonging to the genre of science fiction, in its core, it is a literary piece. And according to him, that is what makes it so hard to adapt because it’s not a child’s play to find images to substitute the words written in the novel. He relayed the memories of 1984 when his son forced him to watch the film, which he was sure he wouldn’t because that was his dream which was given to someone else. But, when he reluctantly agreed to do it, he was satisfied because Lynch’s film was nothing but a horrible blunder. He realized afterward that “Dune” is iconic, and it really is unadaptable. He was convinced that nobody can ever be successful in a true adaptation of Frank Herbert’s novel. Dune is an upcoming Warner Bros. tentpole whose December the 18th release date, however, is on the fringes of an inevitable delay as DC’s Wonder Woman has been slated to be released on Christmas Day. Dune will be pushed to 2021. But, in a recent interview with Stephen Colbert, Denis Villeneuve, along with his cast, said that the production team is working tirelessly to finish the film before December. “Dune,” a modern adaptation of Frank Herbert’s novel, has been budgeted around $200 million, and the story will be told in 2 parts. The first film stars Timothee Chalamet in the lead role of Paul Atreides. He is supported by co-star Zendaya as Chani and actors Rebecca Fergusson (Lady Jessica), Jason Momoa, Dave Bautista, Oscar Isaac, Stellan Skarsgard, Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, and Chang Chen form a stellar cast. Only time can tell what Villeneuve can deliver with “Dune.” Source :- https://redtopix.com/blog/alejandro-jodorowsky-finds-the-dune-trailer-predictable/
BATTING: 3B: Tsutsugo (1, Cobb). TB: Lowe, B 2; Lowe, N; Tsutsugo 4. RBI: Lowe, B (33); Lowe, N (10). 2-out RBI: Lowe, N. Runners left in scoring position, 2 out: Brosseau 2; Margot. GIDP: Lowe, N. Team RISP: 2-for-7. Team LOB: 10.
2020.09.19 03:27 Luke49368Opened my Roth IRA this week
Hello everyone, I'm 19 years old part time working and full time student if that helps with any context. I finalized the opening of my Roth IRA this week and chose the 2065 Vanguard Target Date fund to invest in, as I want to leave it alone for now. I started at $2000 and it's now down to $1970. I fully understand this is normal and nothing to be worried about; however, for the future is there any value in trying to choose better times to invest? I probably would've been better off putting the 2k in today for example, then on Tuesday when I chose to do it. I understand its bad to try to time the market long term, but will trying short term (like across a couple of days I probably could've used the Fed interest rate news to understand waiting may have helped) I don't know. A lot of this is new to me so it's interesting to think about. Thanks for the help!
2020.09.19 00:42 lisagreenhouseGary Michael Hilton, the National Forest Serial Killer, is known to have murdered four people. But his crimes and travels make it hard to believe there weren’t earlier victims. Are there more waiting to be discovered?
Who is Gary Michael Hilton? Gary Michael Hilton, sometimes referred to as the National Forest Serial Killer, was a drifter who murdered at least four hikers in and around national forests in Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2005 and 2008. Hilton was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison in January 2008 for the murder of Meredith Emerson, 24. After that conviction, investigators across the country began looking into unsolved cases that were similar to Emerson’s, and Hilton was charged with and found guilty of three more killings. In 2011, he received the death penalty in a Florida court for the slaying of Cheryl Dunlap, 46. In March 2012, he plead guilty to the murders of John Bryant, 80, and Irene Bryant, 84 and a North Carolina court sentenced him to four consecutive life sentences. Emerson, Dunlap, and the Bryants shared no specific victimology, instead it appears he chose them at random when he needed money. Investigators agree that his were crimes of opportunity, and they believe Hilton may have committed more murders across the southeast United States in the years before his four known victims were killed. Hilton was born November 26, 1946. He had an unstable home life and varied criminal record that stretched from childhood until he was arrested for Emerson’s murder at the age of 61. In 1959, when he was just 13, Hilton reportedly shot his stepfather in a jealous rage over his mother. His stepfather didn’t press charges, but Hilton did spend some time in a mental hospital after the shooting. At 17, Hilton joined the army, and he served from 1964 through 1967, including a tour in West Germany. He was honorably discharged in 1967 after he had been hospitalized for hearing voices and diagnosed with schizophrenia. Hilton was married at least three times, but none of his marriages were long—the longest was just two years. He isn’t believed to have any children. His third wife was a security officer at Stone Mountain Park, a 3,000 acre park near Atlanta that offers camping, hiking, wooded trails, lakes, and family attractions, including the massive peak at its center that is carved with the likenesses of Confederate soldiers. Hilton loved the outdoors. He hiked, camped, and frequently lived in forests and mountains around the south and southeast United States. He loved dogs, too, and had a dog named Dandy (sometimes reported as a golden retriever, other times described as red in color). He never had steady employment; after leaving the army, he worked as a chauffeur in Florida from 1970 to 1972, and he was arrested in 1995 for stealing books he was hired to sell from a door-to-door sales company. From 1997 to 2007, he worked off and on handing out advertisements and doing odd jobs for a Gwinnett County, GA, siding company, but he permanently lost that job when he threatened to kill the company owner if he didn’t pay him $10,000. Hilton also had ongoing legal troubles. He was convicted of a DUI in Florida in 1973; in 1983, he was convicted for carrying an unlicensed gun and a drug charge; he was found guilty of theft and marijuana possession in 1987; and he plead guilty to 21 counts of solicitation in 1995. Samuel Rael, an attorney and filmmaker in Atlanta, admitted that in 1995 Hilton helped him develop the plot for the movie Deadly Run. The movie is about a man who stalks, hunts, and murders women in the woods, a storyline that has similarities to Hilton’s crimes. Rael had defended him in court multiple times since the mid-1980s for crimes ranging from arson and trespassing to solicitation of false charitable donations. Rael said Hilton, whom he considered a consultant on the project, came up with the idea of the main character releasing women into the woods to be hunted like prey and that he also helped select that cast and found the cabin in the woods near Cleveland, Georgia, where much of the movie was filmed. Meredith Emerson’s remains were found approximately 30 miles from that same cabin 13 years later. Investigators have said that Hilton was not considered a suspect in any murders or disappearances during the time the movie was being filmed. Confirmed Victims Victims are listed in the order of their disappearances and murders. However, his final victim, Meredith Emerson, was the first to be linked to Hilton. His implication in her murder helped solve the others. Irene Bryant, 84, and John Bryant, 80, disappeared after driving 20 miles from their home to hike and look at fall colors in North Carolina’s Pisgah National Forest on October 21, 2007. The couple had been married for 58 years and loved traveling, hiking, and being outdoors. Their active lifestyle meant that they were sometimes hard to reach, and it took time for their neighbors and family to realize they were missing. Their son Bob reported them missing on November 2. He drove from his home in Texas to North Carolina to help search for his parents and discovered their vehicle at a trailhead parking lot. Investigators subpoenaed telephone and financial records and discovered that Irene had tried to call 911 around 4 p.m. on October 21 but the call didn’t go through. They couldn’t confirm whether the call failed due to lack of service or interference by another person. Financial records showed a bank withdrawal from their account at 7 p.m. the day after Irene attempted the 911 call. Security footage at the bank in Ducktown, Tennessee, 25 miles away from their vehicle, showed a slender man man in a hooded raincoat using the Bryant’s ATM card. Investigators couldn’t identify the person, but it was neither of the Bryants. Irene’s body was found on November 9, covered with leaves and sticks, just 100 yards from where the couple’s vehicle was parked. She had been killed by a blow to the head and her arms and legs appeared to have also been beaten. Investigators speculated that her attacker had lain in wait on the trail or in the woods just beyond the parking lot. John’s skeletal remains weren’t found until February 5, 2008 when a hunter stumbled across them. On October 26, 2007, Hilton was stopped by a sheriff’s deputy while trespassing on private hunting land. Hilton tells the deputy he’s a paratrooper on field maneuvers, and, when asked if he’s carrying any weapons, he shows the officer an expandable police baton. The officer checks for open warrants and then lets him go. However, Hilton did have an open warrant for a minor 1972 offense in Miami, and he should have been detained. In March 2012, Hilton plead guilty to murdering the Bryants, and he admitted to camping out in the parking lot, scouting for victims. Hilton admitted he had kidnapped Bryant from the parking lot, drove him to the Nantahala National Forest, walked him 30 feet down an embankment, and shot him in the head. It’s believed Hilton wasn’t certain he could control both victims at once, so he chose to kill Irene at the location and then use her death to intimidate and scare John into cooperating and giving him the couple’s ATM PIN number. In the days before the Bryants’ murders, other hikers reported seeing, talking to, and even photographing and confronting Hilton in the Pisgah National Forest in the area where the Bryants were murdered. Along with pleading guilty of ambushing and killing the Bryants, Hilton also plead to robbery and firearms offenses in their case. He again accepted a plea deal to avoid the death penalty and was remanded to serve four additional life sentences consecutively with the life sentence already handed down for Emerson’s murder. The Bryants are Hilton’s first known victims, although he was sentenced in their cases after being tried for his later crimes. Cheryl Hodges Dunlap, 46, was a mother of two grown sons and a nurse and Sunday school teacher, She was last seen alive on December 1, 2007. She had gone hiking alone in Apalachicola National Forest in the Florida panhandle just outside Tallahassee at about 9 a.m. Friends reported her missing after she failed to show up to teach her Sunday school class on December 2 or arrive at work on Monday morning, December 3. Three days after she disappeared her car was found with a flat tire, parked on the shoulder of Highway 319 just outside of the national forest. A search of the area revealed nothing of use. However, an investigation into her digital footprint discovered bank withdrawals. A little over a week after she went missing, authorities released surveillance photos of a man successfully using Dunlap’s ATM card to withdraw money on December 2, 3, and 4, the three days immediately following her disappearance. Police could not identify him because he was wearing a rubber mask, gloves, and hat. Detectives staked out the ATM machine for the next week, but the man never returned. Dunlap’s decapitated remains were discovered near Bloxham Cutoff Road in the Apalachicola National Forest on December 15 by hunters who noticed the presence of buzzards. Because her head and hands were missing, it took a DNA sample to confirm that the remains were hers. Hilton was proven to be in the area when and where Dunlap disappeared because a forestry agent had run his vehicle tag number through the police database on December 7. After Dunlap’s body was found, a hunter also reported coming into contact with Hilton in the forest—driving a white van, wielding a knife and appearing disheveled or homeless. The hunter said he’d warned Hilton that the woods was a bad place to be during hunting season. This interaction allowed the hunter to identify Hilton in a photo lineup. A forestry agent had also questioned Hilton on November 17, 2007 and run his white van’s tag number through a database to ensure it wasn’t stolen. On December 28, another forestry agent interacted with Hilton in Osceola National Forest, about 160 miles from where Dunlap was last seen. Those sightings proved Hilton had been in the area before and then left after Dunlap’s murder. The final item of proof was one of Dunlap’s boots, which Hilton was attempting to discard in the dumpster with Emerson’s belongings when he was initially arrested. Investigators believed Hilton kidnapped Dunlap from the Leon Sinks Geological Area of Apalachicola National Forest, where friends said she had mentioned going to read a book. He likely kept her alive for a few days in order to get money from her ATM card, finally killing her. Investigators say he burned her head and hands in his campfire, then left her vehicle by the road after puncturing the tire with his police baton. There was no physical evidence tying him to the crime, but investigators were able to recover audio tapes on which Hilton had recorded himself talking crudely about women and referencing killing women and hiding things. He said he was a sociopath who could disassociate from the act of murder. Hilton was indicted on Thursday, February 28, 2008 for Dunlap’s murder, kidnapping, and two counts of grand theft. He was found guilty by a unanimous jury in February 2011 and sentenced to death. He unsuccessfully appealed the conviction. Dunlap was Hilton’s third known victim; he was sentenced in her case after being tried and found guilty for murdering his last-known victim, Meredith Emerson. Meredith Emerson, 24, was last seen alive on New Year’s Day 2008, with her dog, a black Labrador retriever mix named Ella. The pair had left home in Buford, Georgia, to hike one of their favorite trails on Blood Mountain. The location is the highest peak in Georgia’s section of the Appalachian Trail and is located on the border of Lumpkin and Union counties inside the Blood Mountain Wilderness and the Chattahoochee National Forest. Concerned after she didn’t return home, Emerson’s friends and boyfriend reported her absence to local police. She was classified as an overdue hiker. The next day, friends and authorities searched the area where Emerson and Ella had been hiking but did not find either of them. A winter storm moved in that day, and authorities had to halt the search. After her disappearance made news, witnesses came forward to claim that they’d seen her hiking with an older man, approximately 60 years old with a red dog, on a spur trail that connects the Appalachian Trail to the Byron Herbert Reece Parking Lot. One caller was a former police officer. He reported that while hiking he’d discovered a police baton, water bottles, sunglasses, a barrette, and a dog leash and treats scattered over an area of disturbed and scuffed ground. He had seen an older man with a police baton walking with a younger woman minutes before finding the items, and he recognized the leash as the one the young woman had been holding. At first, he’d thought they were father and daughter, but the scattered belongings and evidence of a struggle concerned him. While there, he talked with another group of hikers who had seen the man hiding in the woods, but they were unable to locate him after a short search. They gathered the scattered items and left them at a local store, but they didn’t call police at the time. The next day after seeing a report on TV about Emerson’s disappearance, the former officer called investigators to report what he’d seen and found the day before. Also on January 2, John Tabor, a former employer of Hilton’s, called police to let them know Hilton matched the description of the man seen with Emerson on the trail. He said Hilton had called him a few hours before and had apologized for acting erratically and violently toward him, asked him for money, and told him he was near Blood Mountain. He’d asked Tabor to leave him a check at a business Tabor owned, but he never came to collect the check. Investigators noted that Tabor hadn’t called them immediately to inform them of Hilton’s similarity to the suspect or his proximity to the possible kidnapping. Police also recovered surveillance images of Hilton unsuccessfully attempting to use Emerson’s ATM card. Investigators had hope that Emerson was still alive and they were now sure she was with Hilton, so they disseminated Hilton’s DMV photo to the media. On January 4, another witness called police to report that he had encountered an older man and young woman camping near a white van. The witness was driving a lawn care truck when he got it stuck in a stream. He asked the older man for help, but he’d refused. The witness said it seemed like the man was trying to keep him away from the van. When the witness called police dispatch to ask for help getting his vehicle unstuck, the man quickly packed up and left the area in a seeming rush. That same day, Ella was found wandering in a grocery store parking lot in the town of Cumming, Georgia, about 60 miles away from Emerson’s last-known whereabouts. Investigators also discovered bloody clothing, bloody men’s boots, and Emerson’s purse and wallet in a dumpster across the street from the store where Ella was located. A boot, later confirmed to belong to Hilton’s third victim, Cheryl Dunlap, was also recovered from the dumpster. Later that evening, a witness called 911 to report that Hilton—whom he recognized as the suspect in Emerson’s disappearance from news reports—was at a local gas station cleaning out a white van. Police arrived and prevented Hilton from using a vacuum cleaner and bleach on the van’s interior; they also discovered bloody clothing and blankets he had attempted to discard in the gas station trash receptacles. Blood in the vehicle was later matched to Emerson, and Hilton was charged with her murder. During almost five hours of interrogations, Hilton admitted that Emerson fought back against him when he attacked her, yelling and using her martial arts skills to fend him off (she’d earned a blue belt in aikido and was posthumously awarded a black belt). He said that she almost got away, but that he was finally able to subdue her when she lost her footing and stumbled. He said he’d chosen to attack her because she was a woman, and that they’d hiked together for a while before she outpaced him. He then stopped and waited for her down the trail, planning to rob her of her ATM card when she was returning to her vehicle. He admitted to taking Emerson from the parking lot in his van, returning at her request a few minutes later to pick up Ella, who had initially been left behind. He drove her to multiple banks and unsuccessfully attempted to use her ATM; police believed she was intentionally giving him wrong PIN numbers to buy time. Unfortunately, no one at the banks or law enforcement noticed the failed transactions or attempted use of Emerson’s ATM cards until January 4. Eventually Hilton gave up and drove Emerson to a secluded location where, for three days, she continued to give him incorrect ATM PIN codes in an apparent attempt to give rescuers time to find her. Hilton told investigators that he tired of waiting for the correct PIN number, so he told Emerson he was taking her home; however, he admitted that he knew he couldn’t release her since she’d seen his face and vehicle and knew so much about him. Instead, while she was tied to a tree, he hit her over the head repeatedly with a car jack handle to kill her, and then he decapitated her. He covered her body with leaves, then drove to another wooded area more than an hour away, where he discarded her head. He said he was unable to kill Ella and decided to let her go. Disturbingly, in that same interview, when asked about whether it was hard for him to kill Emerson, Hilton stated, “It was hard … you gotta remember we had spent several good days together.” Hilton offered to lead investigators to Emerson’s body if they’d agree to remove the death penalty option. An autopsy confirmed Hilton’s story: her cause of death was officially listed as blunt force trauma to the head, and she’d been decapitated postmortem. He plead guilty to Emerson’s murder on January 30, 2008, and he was sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole after 30 years. The case was in the news again in 2010 when a writer for Hustler magazine submitted a request for crime scene photos for use in an article about Emerson’s kidnapping and murder. A judge blocked the request, preventing the Georgia Bureau of Investigation from releasing "any and all photographs, visual images or depictions of Meredith Emerson which show Emerson in an unclothed or dismembered state.” The Georgia House also passed The Meredith Emerson Memorial Privacy Act, preventing “gruesome crime scene photos from being publicly released or disseminated.” The Act, House Bill 1322, stops the release of all images in which victims of crimes appear “nude, bruised, bloodied or in a broken state with open wounds, a state of dismemberment or decapitation.” Hilton’s involvement in Emerson’s kidnapping and murder drew the attention of investigators in other states. While she is believed to be his last victim, the successful investigation into her case resulted in his guilty pleas and sentencing for three other murders. A series of other unsolved crimes is also being investigated for ties to Hilton. Possible Victims Melissa Witt, 19, disappeared from the parking lot of a local bowling alley in Fort Smith, Arkansas on December 1, 1994. On January 13, 1995, her body was found by hunters in a rural area of the same county from where she disappeared. She was naked, and her remains were near a rock that’s been described as headstone-like. Her clothing was never located. Some investigators believe that there are similarities between Witt’s disappearance and death and those of Hilton’s known victims. Judy Smith, 50, is considered a possible victim of Hilton’s because her remains were found near the location where Hilton would bludgeon Irene Bryant a decade later. Smith was last confirmed to have been seen by her husband, Jeffrey, at a Philadelphia hotel on April 10, 1997. The couple flew from their home in Newton, Massachusetts to Philadelphia the day before so that Jeffrey could attend a work conference. After arriving at the airport, Judy discovered she had left her identification at home and would not be able to board the plane. She returned home to retrieve her ID and took a later flight, meeting Jeffrey at their hotel. She planned to go sightseeing while Jeffrey was attending the conference, and Jeffrey confirmed she’d been alive and in their room that next morning. That evening, after the conference meetings had ended for the day, Jeffery could not find Judy. He searched for her and tried to report her missing around midnight, but investigators told him he needed to wait 24 hours. During the ensuing investigation, there were a number of sightings of a woman matching Judy’s description in and around Philadelphia, several of which seemed to describe a person experiencing psychological problems or acting disoriented or disturbed. Other possible sightings were of a woman matching Judy’s description riding the bus, shopping at a mall, and sitting outside a gourmet grocery store. The Smith family found some of the descriptions and sightings credible. On September 7, 1997, about five months after Smith was last confirmed to have been seen, hunters in the Pisgah National Forest about 9 miles from Asheville, North Carolina discovered scattered bones around a shallow grave. Some clothing and personal effects were also located. Cut marks and punctures found on the ribs and clothing suggested the victim had been stabbed. The remains were confirmed to be those of Judy Smith. Strangely, the clothes she was discovered wearing were not any she was known to have owned or reported by witnesses, and the family has no explanation for why or how she got to or was in Asheville. Later reports found that people in the Asheville area had seen Judy or a woman who resembled her. The sightings were deemed credible, but no one claimed to have seen Judy with anyone else. Money and jewelry was found near Judy’s body and belongings, so robbery was ruled out as a motive. Investigators came to believe Smith traveled to Asheville voluntarily, but they’re unsure of why or what happened to her while there. Hilton has been suggested as a possible suspect, but investigators have not publicly linked him to Smith’s case or named as a suspect. Levi Frady, 11, was abducted from Little Mill Road in Forsyth County, Georgia, on October 22, 1997. The next day his remains were found partially submerged in a rainwater-filled pit in Dawson Forest Wildlife Management Area in Dawson County, Georgia. He had been shot three times, once in the chest and twice in the head. Investigators consider Frady’s case open and active. Some have hinted Hilton is considered a suspect, but he has not been publicly named. In April 1998, Jason Knapp, 20, disappeared. He was a student at Clemson University, and he was last known to have been seen by his roommate at around 10:30 p.m. on April 11, watching a movie at their residence. His vehicle was found on April 21 at Table Rock State Park in Pickens, South Carolina. The area is about 30 miles from the university and is very rugged. Investigators found a Wendy’s restaurant receipt inside the vehicle dated April 12 at 1:30 p.m. It is believed he drove to the park on April 12. He had also withdrawn $20 from his bank account that day; his bank cards, including an ATM card, were never found. The area around his vehicle showed no signs of struggle or foul play, and it is unknown whether he drove to the location alone. Searchers canvassed the area around his vehicle for two weeks and found nothing of interest. Patrice Endres, 38, disappeared from her hair salon in Cumming, Georgia, between 11:30 a.m. and noon on April 15, 2004. She vanished during a gap of about 12 minutes between clients. The front door of the salon was unlocked and the cash register was empty, but there was money in her purse. Her lunch was in the microwave and her vehicle was parked at the salon. Her skeletal remains were found in December 2005 behind a church about 10 miles from her salon. A woman came forward with a description of a man in a white van parked in front of the salon, but she later recanted the story. Serial killer Jeremy Brian Jones admitted to killing Endres and dumping her body in Sweetwater Creek in Douglas County, but authorities ruled him out as a suspect after her remains were found 70 miles from that location and when he couldn’t provide any additional information that wasn’t in the public record. Authorities looked at Hilton’s possible involvement, but they say he is no longer considered a suspect. There is no information as to why investigators have ruled him out. Rossana Miliani, 29, lived in Miami, Florida, and disappeared while vacationing in Cherokee, North Carolina. She was last confirmed to have been seen at about noon on December 7, 2005, in the hotel where she was staying. She called her father and told him she was going hiking on the Appalachian Trail. Some reports say she was spotted in Bryson City, NC, where she rented a storage space, shortly before disappearing. Miliani is reported to have bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but no details are available about whether she was on medication or if she was experiencing any issues at the time of her disappearance. On the two-year anniversary of her disappearance, a clerk at a local store read an article about Miliani and called investigators to report that she’d sold a backpack or bag, possibly a sleeping bag according to some sources, to Miliani and a man who claimed to be a traveling preacher who visited campsites around the Appalachian Trail. According to the clerk, the man was about 60 years old, had hair greying at the temples and may have been wearing a hair piece because his hair looked unusual. The clerk claimed that Miliani appeared to be nervous. A private investigator working on the case released a sketch of the unidentified man in June 2009. The man resembles Hilton, and he’s considered a possible suspect. Neither Miliani nor any of her belongings, including luggage and a camera, have been found; no money has been withdrawn from her bank account since her disappearance, but a deposit was made on December 31, nearly three weeks after her disappearance. No further information is available about that deposit. Some sources say Hilton is known to have stolen and unsuccessfully tried to use Miliani’s bank card, but I was unable to find official corroboration of those reports. A fisherman found the remains of Michael Scot Louis, 27, dismembered and stuffed in plastic garbage bags, in the Tomoka River at Ormond Beach, Tomoka State Park, Florida on December 6, 2007. His torso and legs were recovered, but his head has never been found. Louis was last known to have been seen on November 21 or 22, 2007, but when his remains were found 16 days later, the autopsy estimated he had only been dead for two to seven days. It’s unclear where he was or who he may have been with during the days he was unaccounted for. Days after his disappearance, his Firebird was found parked unusually far from his apartment in the apartment complex’s parking lot in South Daytona, Florida, with the keys still in the ignition and his dirty laundry and guitars inside. Hilton was officially ruled out as a suspect after DNA testing did not implicate him, but some thought he should remain on the list as a potential suspect. In January 2018, Nelci Tetley, 67, was arrested for shooting to death and dismembering her then-boyfriend, Jeffrey Albertsman, 55. It was discovered that she had possibly also dated Louis, although she denied knowing him or having a relationship with him, and she’s been named as a suspect in his case. University of Georgia student Cayle Bywater disappeared from Athens, Georgia on December 29, 2007. She was reported missing after neighbors became concerned when her dog was seen running loose outside her home. Meredith Emerson would be kidnapped three days later from Vogel State Park, about 80 miles north of Athens. On January 11, Bywater’s body was found in an Athens lake. An autopsy listed drowning as her cause of death, but there’s disagreement about how she came to be in the lake. There were no traces of illegal drugs or alcohol in her system, but she had been prescribed medication to treat a mental disorder, reported by some agencies as bipolar disorder. The autopsy also found a previously undiagnosed heart defect, but that could not be proven to have played a part in her death. A photograph taken by an undisclosed individual the day she was last seen alive shows Bywater in Memorial Park walking her dog on leash. Witnesses claim to have seen someone matching Bywater’s appearance walking a dog in the park near the lake where her body was later found, and some said she appeared to be disoriented or chasing the dog. No signs of foul play were discovered on her body or at the scene, but her family insists she did not wander off or commit suicide. In a news article dated January 8, 2008, (https://www.savannahnow.com/article/20080108/news/301089882) her family was concerned that she may have been kidnapped by someone who saw her in a disoriented or confused state and took advantage of the situation. That same news article mentions the kidnapping of Meredith Emerson by Gary Michael Hilton but quotes an investigator as saying the local police department and Georgia Bureau of Investigation did not consider the cases related at that point. It’s unknown if Hilton is now or was ever considered a suspect in Bywater’s case. Are there more? There are dozens of unsolved cases of missing and murdered people in the areas where Hilton was known to or may have traveled or lived. Someone put together this Google Map detailing known and possible victims of Hilton: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1v-4PyOHDjE17GhkF6ofEvFWtLes&hl=en&gl=us&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&z=5&ll=34.77220536527494%2C-83.37685848300629 . It’s a very interesting rabbit hole. I’m unsure who created the map or what criteria they used to include possible victims. If anyone on this sub has information about the creation of this map, please let me know and I’ll include more details. What Don’t We Know? Discussion and Theories Knowing what we do about Hilton and the crimes for which he was convicted, it’s hard to believe that Emerson, Dunlap, and the Bryants are his only victims. Investigators have pointed out that it’s rare for a serial killer to start killing in their 60s, and Hilton’s crimes seem to be the work of a confident killer. His lack of victimology—targeting victims based on opportunity rather than sticking to a certain type of person—and his large geographic footprint, transient lifestyle, lack of family and friends, and remote hunting grounds all point to the possibility that he’s been active for a lot longer than the short spree of four known victims. There are so many missing people and unsolved homicides in the southeast corner of the United States that it’s not hard to think Hilton may be responsible for some of them. What are your thoughts or theories? A note of thanks:u/cspach2005 invited me to do this write-up on Hilton for an upcoming podcast on www.disturbedpodcast.com. They covered my previous write-up on Timothy Bindner (https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/g2mh3i/hes_been_a_suspect_in_the_disappearances_of_at/) in this podcast, https://www.disturbedpodcast.com/bindne, so I was thrilled to contribute again. I’ll add a link to the podcast episode on Hilton once it’s done. Resources: Park Predators podcast about Hilton: https://parkpredators.com/episode-1-the-hunte YouTube video of Georgia Bureau of Investigation interview with Hilton (4.5 hours): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9Tw1iejmzc ThoughtCo blog from July 14, 2019 about Hilton’s crimes: https://www.thoughtco.com/the-gary-michael-hilton-case-971046 Murderpedia entry for Hilton, including text from news articles: https://murderpedia.org/male.H/h/hilton-gary-michael.htm Timeline of Hilton’s life and crimes: http://prairiechicken.blogspot.com/2008/02/gary-michael-hilton-timeline.html Strange Outdoors article from January 23, 2018 about Hilton and his victims: https://www.strangeoutdoors.com/mysterious-stories-blog/2018/1/22/gary-michael-hilton-the-hiker-murders CNN article from 2008 detailing how Hilton helped make a movie about a serial killer: https://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/03/13/hilton.movie/index.html Wikipedia article: Murder of Meredith Emerson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Meredith_Emerson March 23, 2008 article detailing Hilton’s confession and Emerson’s fight to survive: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23769881/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/killer-says-female-hiker-fought-him-end/ March 11, 201 article about judge barring release of crime scene photos in Emerson’s case: http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/03/10/meredith.emerson.photos/index.html August 2012 opinion piece by the journalist who requested Emerson crime scene photos explaining why he did so: https://www.ajc.com/news/opinion/why-requested-slain-hiker-crime-scene-photos/2PmN2O3oTCOJKq7mBuvgfL/ Wikipedia article about the Judy Smith case: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judy_Smith_homicide Rossana Miliani Charley Project profile: http://charleyproject.org/case/rossana-miliani Article from December 17, 2007 about remains found in Florida, possibly linking them to Cheryl Dunlap: https://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=4010778&page=1 Article from February 28, 2008, announcing Hilton’s indictment in the case of Dunlap: http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/28/hilton.indictment/index.html March 27, 2012 article about Hilton pleading guilty to the Byrants’ murders: https://www.blueridgenow.com/article/NC/20120327/news/606022032/HT May 17, 2008 article detailing John Bryant’s autopsy findings: https://www.blueridgenow.com/article/NC/20080517/News/606047031/HT January 4, 2018 article about the Bryants: https://www.ajc.com/news/local/tragic-end-for-unique-couple/PzAHQbeBqHLPzNjGei0nAJ/ December 23, 2007 article about memorial service for Michael Scot Louis: https://www.news-journalonline.com/article/LK/20071223/news/180117745/DN January 24, 2018 article about Nelci Tetley’s arrest, possible implication in Louis’ death: https://heavy.com/news/2018/01/nelci-tetley-accused-dismembering-killing-boyfriends/ January 13, 2017 article commemorating the 22nd anniversary of Melissa Witt’s unsolved disappearance and murder: https://www.5newsonline.com/article/news/local/outreach/back-to-school/melissa-witts-body-found-22-years-ago-investigation-still-open/527-5556593c-22df-4077-b6c3-e7fd7f041f33 Jason Knapp’s Charley Project profile: http://charleyproject.org/case/jason-andrew-knapp April 4, 2010 article about Patrice Endres’ disappearance and murder: https://www.forsythnews.com/local/crime-courts/husband-seeks-closure-in-cold-case/ Google Map detailing known and possible victims of Hilton: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1v-4PyOHDjE17GhkF6ofEvFWtLes&hl=en&gl=us&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&z=5&ll=34.77220536527494%2C-83.37685848300629 (I did not create this map, nor do I know who did or what criteria they used when choosing which possible victims to include. I’ll gladly edit the post to include that information if someone knows more details about the map’s creator or creation.)
2020.09.18 20:52 flyinmacaronimonsterVirginia is for Voters: A Highly Detailed Guide to Voting in Northern Virginia
**EDIT: Added Stafford County and Fredericksburg **EDIT 2: If you have already requested an absentee ballot but want to vote in-person before receiving your ballot, you will have to vote with a provisional ballot. Voting provisionally is something that you would want to avoid unless necessary. So, if you have already requested your ballot by mail, it is HIGHLY recommended that you wait for your ballot to be mailed to you, and then drop it off in person. https://www.elections.virginia.gov/media/training/Intro-to-Provisional-Ballots.pdf Hey Virginians! Today's the day! VOTING STARTS RIGHT NOW. Yes! You can vote now! Both absentee in-person voting and absentee voting-by-mail starts today, Friday, September 18. EARLY VOTING IS AVAILABLE UNTIL SATURDAY, OCTOBER 31. All locations will close on this date, and not earlier. If you have not registered to vote yet, please do so. THE VOTER REGISTRATION DEADLINE IS MONDAY, OCTOBER 12, so please register to vote if you haven't done so yet. You can register to vote using this link: https://www.elections.virginia.gov/registration/ Make sure you have proper Identification: https://www.elections.virginia.gov/registration/photo-ids-required-to-vote/ If you are choosing to vote-by-mail instead of in-person, request a ballot, READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY, fill in your ballot and MAKE SURE TO SIGN IT IN THE CORRECT PLACE. Please note that a witness signature is NOT required for this election. https://www.wric.com/news/politics/virginia-absentee-ballots-will-not-need-witness-signature-in-novembe For Northern Virginia, I would like to say that, in all honesty, the drop-box situation is quite patchwork. When drop-boxes were first announced, I thought there would be like one of these in every City and County: https://s3.reutersmedia.net/resources/?m=02&d=20200820&t=2&i=1530339454&r=LYNXMPEG7J0NJ&w=940 Upon doing more research, I realized that the drop-box situation, not just in Northern Virginia, but also across the commonwealth of Virginia inconsistent. Some places have those types of drop boxes available (not necessarily that size, but like that kind of drop-box), and some don't. It all just varies. So, I will break it down by city and county in Northern Virginia I will be detailing the following counties and cities: CITIES AND COUNTIES: Alexandria (city) Arlington (county) Fairfax (county) Fairfax (city) Falls Church (city) Fredericksburg (city) Loudon (county) Manassas (city) Manassas Park (city) Prince William (county) Staffford (county) PLACES WITH 24/7 EXTERIOR DROP-BOXES:
Falls Church (City)
PLACES WITH HOURS-LIMITED, INTERIOR DROP-BOXES -Fairfax (City) ALEXANDRIA (CITY) LINKS: • https://www.alexandriava.gov/elections/info/default.aspx?id=1720 • http://www.alexandriagazette.com/news/2020/sep/03/drop-box-election/ WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early voting location available @ the Office of Voter Registration & Elections, 132 N Royal St, Suite 100. HOURS: 8:00am-5:00pm MON-FRI. DOES ALEXANDRIA AVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? YES: Satellite Early voting starts Friday, October 23. 1 location is open on every day up to Saturday, October 31, except Sunday, and 2 locations only open on the 2 Saturdays before early voting. Beatley Library @ 5005 Duke Street (OPEN EVERY DAY EXCEPT SUNDAY, OCTOBER 25) Minnie Howard School, 3801 W. Braddock Road (SATURDAYS ONLY) George Washington School, 1005 Mt. Vernon Avenue (SATURDAYS ONLY) DOES ALEXANDRIA HAVE DROP-BOXES? YES: (1) 24/7 drop box available at the Registrar’s office @ 132 N Royal St. You can also drop it off at a satellite early voting site starting on Friday, October 23, or at your polling precinct on Election Day. ARLINGTON COUNTY LINKS • https://vote.arlingtonva.us/voter-guide/ • https://vote.arlingtonva.us/early-voting/ • https://vote.arlingtonva.us/ballot-drop-off/ WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early voting location available @ Bozman Government Center, 2200 Clarendon Blvd. Hours: 8:00am-5:00pm MON-FRI. DOES ARLINGTON COUNTY HAVE SATELLITE EARLY VOTING? YES: Arlington County will have (4) satellite early voting locations, available after Saturday, October 17. Aurora Hills Community Center @ 735 18th St S Langston-Brown Community Center @ 2121 N Culpeper St Madison Community Center @ 3829 N Stafford St Walter Reed Community Center @ 2909 16th St S DOES ARLINGTON COUNTY HAVE DROP BOXES? NO: Arlington County does not have permanent drop-boxes, only supervised drop-off sites will be available. There's only (2) places to drop off your ballot, from now up until Saturday, October 17, both of which are on the same block around the Courthouse. Supervised ballot drop-off sites will be available at each satellite early voting site po IF THERE ARE NO DROP-BOXES, WHERE CAN I DROP OFF MY BALLOT RIGHT NOW? There's only 2 places to drop off your ballot, from now up until Saturday, October 17, both of which are on the same block around the Courthouse. • LOCATION #1: Bozman Government Center @ 2100 Clarendon Blvd, 3rd Floor • TOTAL RANGE OF DATES AVAILABLE: September 18 – November 3 • HOURS OPEN AS OF NOW: 8:00am-5:00pm MON-FRI up until Saturday, October 17; extended hours, including weekend hours available after that date (CHECK LINK FOR EXPANDED HOURS) • LOCATION #2: Courthouse Plaza @ 2200 Clarendon Blvd (Former Wells Fargo Space by Starbucks) [ALSO EARLY VOTING SITE] • TOTAL RANGE OF DATES AVAILABLE: September 18 – October 31 • HOURS OPEN AS OF NOW: 8:00am-5:00pm MON-FRI up until Saturday, October 17; extended hours, including weekend hours available after that date (CHECK LINK FOR EXPANDED HOURS) You can also drop off your ballot at any satellite early voting location or at a polling place on Election Day. FAIRFAX COUNTY LINKS: • https://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/elections/absentee • https://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/elections/absentee-locations/fairfax-county-government-center • https://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/elections/absentee-locations/fairfax-county-government-center • https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/ballot-droboxes-maryland-dc-virginia/2020/09/10/4554087c-f1fe-11ea-b796-2dd09962649c_story.html WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early voting location is available @ the Office of Elections, located at the Fairfax County Government Center, 12000 Government Center Parkway, Suite 323, Fairfax. HOURS: 8:30am-4:30pm MON-FRI. DOES FAIRFAX COUNTY HAVE SATELLITE EARLY VOTING? YES: 14 satellite early voting locations will be available starting on Wednesday, October 14 (one particular location will only be open on Saturdays): Centreville Library @ 14200 St. Germain Dr, Centreville Franconia Government Center @ 6121 Franconia Rd, Franconia Herndon Fortnight Library @ 768 Center St, Herndon Laurel Hills Golf Course @ 8701 Laurel Crest Dr, Lorton Mason Governmental Center @ 6507 Columbia Pike, Annandale (Mason District) McLean Governmental Center @ 1437 Balls Hills Rd, McLean Mount Vernon Governmental Center @ 2511 Parkers Lane, Alexandria (Mount Vernon) North County Governmental Center @ 1801 Cameron Glen Dr, Reston Providence Community Center @ 3001 Vaden Dr, Fairfax Sully Governmental Center @ 4900 Stonecroft Blvd, Chantilly Thomas Jefferson Library @ 7415 Arlington Blvd, West Falls Church Tysons Pimmit Library @ 7584 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church (Pimmit Hills) West Springfield Governmental Center @ 6140 Rolling Rd, West Springfield Great Falls Library @ 9830 Georgetown Pike, Great Falls [SATURDAYS ONLY] DOES FAIRFAX COUNTY HAVE DROP-BOXES? NO. There is only (1) location to drop-off your ballot as of now, as a supervised manned "drop box" will be available at the Office of Elections. This "drop-box" will be open during business hours (8:30am-4:30pm MON-FRI) and will be located inside the building at the Elections office. There will also be one of these "drop-boxes" available at each satellite early voting location, and at each polling location on Election Day. FAIRFAX (CITY) LINKS: • https://www.fairfaxva.gov/government/voter-registration/absentee-voting • https://patch.com/virginia/fairfaxcity/drop-box-available-absentee-ballots-fairfax-city WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early, in-person voting site is available @ City of Fairfax Office of Elections 10455 Armstrong Street, Suite 300. DOES FAIRFAX HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only 1 location for early voting. DOES FAIRFAX HAVE DROP-BOXES? YES (WITH ONE CAVEAT): (1) drop-box will be available in Fairfax at City Hall (10455 Armstrong St), but it will be located inside the lobby and will only be available during business hours (8:30am-5pm MON-FRI, and also on Saturday October 24 and Saturday, October 31; open on Election Day until 7:00pm). FALLS CHURCH (CITY) LINKS: • https://www.fallschurchva.gov/1970/Early-Absentee-Voting WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? Early, in-person voting is available @ the Voter Registration and Office of Elections at City Hall, 300 Park Ave, Center Level, Suite 206. HOURS: 9:00am-4:00pm MON-FRI. Open on Saturday, October 24 and Saturday, October 31 between 9:00am-5:00pm. DOES FALLS CHURCH HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only 1 location for early voting. DOES FALLS CHURCH HAVE DROP-BOXES? YES. (1) 24/7 exterior drop-box located at City Hall (300 Park Ave). FREDERICKSBURG (CITY) LINKS: • https://www.fredericksburgva.gov/535/Absentee-Voting WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? Early, in-person voting is available @ the Voter Registrar's office at the Executive Center at 601 Caroline St, 5th Floor, in Fredericksburg. HOURS: 8:30am-4:30pm MON-FRI. Open on Saturday, October 24 and Saturday, October 31. Hours unknown for the Saturday dates. DOES FREDERICKSBURG HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only 1 location for early voting. DOES FREDERICKSBURG HAVE DROP-BOXES? YES. (1) 24/7 exterior drop-box located at the Executive Center (601 Caroline St) [SAME BUILDING AS THE VOTER REGISTRAR'S OFFICE]. LOUDOUN COUNTY LINKS: • https://www.loudoun.gov/novemberelection • https://www.loudoun.gov/5392/Early-Voting-Information • https://www.loudoun.gov/189/Voting-By-Mail WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? Early, in-person voting is available @ the Loudoun County Office of Elections at 750 Miller Dr SE, Leesburg. HOURS: 8:30am-5:30pm MON-FRI (Extended hours hours available after Saturday, October 17.) DOES LOUDOUN COUNTY HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? YES. Loudon County has, as of now 3 satellite early voting locations: 2 will be open MON-SAT between Saturday, October 17 and Saturday, October 31, and 1 will only be available on Saturdays (October 17, 24 and 31). Loudoun County Government Office at Ridgetop @ 21641 Ridgetop Circle, Sterling Dulles South Senior Center @ 24950 Riding Center Drive, Chantilly Carver Senior Center - 200 E Willie Palmer Way, Purcellville [SATURDAYS ONLY] DOES LOUDOUN COUNTY HAVE DROP-BOXES? NO. Supervised drop-off sites will be available (very likely at satellite early voting sites), and you can also drop-off your ballot at the Office of Elections. MANASSAS (CITY) LINKS: https://www.manassascity.org/voter_registration_and_elections/early_voting.php https://www.manassascity.org/voter_registration_and_elections/voting_hours.php WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early, in-person voting site is available @ City of Manassas Voter Registration and Elections Office @ 9025 Center Street. HOURS: 8:30am-5:00pm MON-FRI. DOES MANASSAS HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only 1 location for early voting. DOES MANASSAS HAVE DROP-BOXES? NO: Hand-delivery to the Elections Office ONLY, at least as far as I am aware of. MANASSAS PARK (CITY) LINKS: http://www.cityofmanassaspark.us/news/2076-registrar-announcement-in-person-absentee-voting-starts-september-18-2020.html https://cityofmanassaspark.us/about-manassas-park/city-departments/registrar-of-voter.html WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (1) Early, in-person voting site is available @ Manassas Park City Hall @ 1 Park Center Ct. HOURS: 8:30am-5:00pm MON-FRI. Also available Saturday, October 24 and Saturday, October 31 between the hours of 9:00am-5:00pm. DOES MANASSAS HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only 1 location for early voting. DOES MANASSAS HAVE DROP-BOXES? YES (WITH ONE CAVEAT): (1) drop-box will be available inside Manassas Park at City Hall (1 Park Center Ct), at the Voter Registration Office, only open during voting hours. Supervised ballot boxes also available at polling locations on Election Day. PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY **AS A SIDE NOTE, I WOULD SAY THAT IT IS FAR EASIER TO VOTE EARLY AND IN-PERSON IN PWC THAN BY MAIL LINKS: • https://www.pwcvotes.org/ • https://26d73768-aba6-4644-905b-6ea5efbfc5d6.filesusr.com/ugd/d8ec42_733510cb674048dfb9d4c784dcc61a1d.pdf (Map of Early Voting Locations; retreived off the office PWC website) • https://www.insidenova.com/news/election/prince-william-county-early-voting-guide/article_2ec5f812-f880-11ea-94c1-db23701925d4.html WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (3) locations available for early, in-person voting: ** Main Election Office of Prince William County @ 9250 Lee Ave, Suite 1, Manassas .** [MAIN ELECTIONS OFFICE] DMV in Woodbridge @ 2731 Caton Hill Rd, Woodbridge **Haymarket Gainesville Library @ 14870 Lightner Rd, Haymarket HOURS FOR ALL (3) LOCATIONS: 8:30am-5pm MON-FRI; 8:30am-12 noon SAT. (Extended hours after Saturday, October 17) DOES PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? YES. In Prince William County, UNLIKE OTHER CITIES & COUNTIES IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA, has 2 satellite early voting locations in addition to the main voting location in Manassas available from the outset (AS LISTED ABOVE); as well as 5 additional locations, also with extended hours, available starting on Saturday, October 17: James J. McCoart Administration Building @ One County Complex Court, Woodbridge A.J. Ferlazzo Building @ 15941 Donald Curtis Dr, Woodbridge Piney Branch Elementary School @ 8301 Linton Hall Rd, Bristow Colgan High School @ 13833 Dumfries Rd, Manassas Dumfries Town Hall @ 17739 Main St #200, Dumfries DOES PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY HAVE DROP-BOXES? NO. No drop boxes available, but you can drop it off at the Main Election Office in Manassas, or at any early voting location. Contact the County Election Office for more details on ballot drop off. STAFFORD LINKS: https://staffordcountyva.gov/875/Voter-Registration WHERE CAN I VOTE RIGHT NOW? (2) locations are available for early, in-person voting: Stafford Airport @ 95 Aviation Way, Fredericksburg (8:30am-4:30pm MON-FRI) Stafford County Government Center @ 1300 Courthouse Rd, Stafford (8:30am-4:00pm MON-FRI) DOES STAFFORD COUNTY HAVE ANY SATELLITE EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS? NO. Only those two locations. DOES STAFFORD COUNTY HAVE DROP-BOXES? NO. No drop boxes available, but you can drop it off at either the registrar's office, or at either early voting site. Contact the County Election Office for more details on ballot drop off. LINKS TO OTHER SOURCES • https://www.elections.virginia.gov/registration/photo-ids-required-to-vote/ • https://www.elections.virginia.gov/registration/ • https://www.elections.virginia.gov/media/training/Intro-to-Provisional-Ballots.pdf [can only vote provisionally if you have already requested an absentee ballot] • https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/ballot-droboxes-maryland-dc-virginia/2020/09/10/4554087c-f1fe-11ea-b796-2dd09962649c_story.html • https://www.wric.com/news/politics/virginia-absentee-ballots-will-not-need-witness-signature-in-novembe
Gamera ガメラ In this particular article I will be explaining the origins of Gamera as well as how he came to be. I will be talking about the company that first created Gamera and how it was sold to other companies all the way up to what is happening today. Gamera is a gigantic flying Terrapin that was created by Daiei Motion Picture Company and now is owned by Kadokawa Pictures and Publishing Company. Gamera first made it on the screen in 1965 and was created simply because of the success of his counterpart and more popular monster they call Godzilla who has been on the screen a little bit low living Gamera. Godzilla started out in 1954. It was the 1960s when the “Monster Boom gained its popularity in Japan as both of these monsters are Japanese icons. During the 1970s Gamera did attain some prominence on what is called UHF television stations that would feature these movies every Saturday morning as a Saturday matinee type movie. Gamera is a gigantic turtle that door in the Showa Series he stood at 60 m tall and door and the Heisei series he was 80 m tall. To describe Gamera even more Gamera possesses a pronounced sagittal crest on the top of his head and his mouth was filled with gigantic tea with two gigantic fangs protruding from his lower jaw or tusks. Gamera in the Showa Series was a titanic, firebreathing, prehistoric species of tortoise or Terrapin. Gamera fed off of the petroleum-based materials that were on the planet at that time as he consumed it in order to breathe fire and fire at the Jets that would attack him. It is also known that Gamera has the capabilities of flying were Godzilla does not. By consuming the petroleum he is capable of extracting his legs in and they would ignite with flames coming out of all four legs as he propels himself spinning into the air. Now we will talk about the original classic 1965 movie it begins showing bombers from the USSR or Russia as they are being intercepted by American fighters over the United States airspace in the Arctic. As we all know this sets off cataclysmic explosions that release Gamera from the ice and he goes on a rampage and at the end of the movie he is lured into this bay where the top of the bay is closed up it is a rocket and he is sent off into space. Gamera has become a legacy as the Daiei Company who owned Gamera went on to create a lot of movies for the Showa Series. The next one after the original classic would be Gamera vs. Barugon which came out in 1966 and then Gamera vs. Gyaos in 1967, Gamera vs. Virus 1968, and Gamera vs. Guiron 1969, Gamera vs. Jiger 1970, Gamera vs. Zigra 1971, and finally the super cheesiest of all Gamera movies it is called “Gamera: Super Monster” which came out in 1980. For me the movies were really good until after Gamera vs. Gyaos 1967 and then they got silly and super child friendly until Heisei Series. However that would all change for the company that created Gamera The Daiei Motion Picture Company would go bankrupt. This particular company was a product of government efforts to reorganize the film industry during World War II in order to rationalize its resources and increase control over the medium. It was then that the government plan to combine all the film studios into two companies, Masaichi Nagata, an executive at Shinkō Kinema, pressed hard for an alternative plan to create three studios. His efforts won out and Shinkō Kinema, Daito Eiga, and the production arm of Nikkatsu (the Nikkatsu theaters did not take part in the merger) were merged in 1942 to form the Dai Nippon Eiga Seisaku Kabushiki Kaisha, or Daiei for short. The novelist Kan Kikuchi served as the first president, with Nagata continuing as an executive. Daiei's studios were located in Chofu, Tokyo and in Uzumasa in Kyoto. Nagata became president in 1947 and, apart from a brief period when he was purged by Occupation authorities, remained in that position until 1971. Under his reign, Daiei produced Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950) and entered it in the Venice Film Festival, where it won the grand prize and became the first Japanese film to win an international award, thus introducing Japanese cinema to the world. Daiei also produced Teinosuke Kinugasa's Gate of Hell (1953), the first Japanese color film to be shown abroad, earning both an honorary Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Daiei also produced such renowned films as Mizoguchi's Ugetsu (1953) and Sansho the Bailiff (1954), as well as Jokyo (which was entered into the 10th Berlin International Film Festival). On the popular front, Daiei was also known for such successful film series as the Zatoichi films starring Shintaro Katsu, the Sleepy Eyes of Death series featuring Raizō Ichikawa, the Gamera movies, and the Daimajin Trilogy. Daiei also produced many television series such as Shōnen Jet. In its heyday, Daiei featured such talent as the actors Raizō Ichikawa, Shintaro Katsu, Kazuo Hasegawa, Fujiko Yamamoto, Machiko Kyō, and Ayako Wakao; the directors Kenji Mizoguchi, Kon Ichikawa, Yasuzo Masumura, and Kenji Misumi; and the cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. Like some other film studios, Daiei had its own professional baseball team in the 1950s, the Daiei Stars, which later became the Daiei Unions. These teams eventually became the Chiba Lotte Marines. Now let us talk about the bankruptcy of the Daiei Motion Picture Company it was back in 1971 when they tried to stay alive I teaming up with Nikkatsu and another motion picture company however with the combination of both motion picture companies it was just not enough. Because in 1971 they would declare bankruptcy and it would be the members of the union who however succeeded in getting Yasuyoshi Tokuma, the president of the publishing house, Tokuma Shoten, to revive the company in 1974. This particular version of the Daiei motion picture company would go on to be making only a small number of films, some of which were big budget spectaculars like the international coproduction “The Go Masters” which came out in 1982 and the ever popular and ever loving “Shall We Dance?” Which came out in 1996 and later in the United States this movie would be re-created using Richard Gere, Jennifer Lopez, Susan Sarandon and a very popular cast. This movie turned out to be a very good movie both versions of this movie are very good in their own way. After all the films were produced it would soon be after the passing Yasuyoshi Tokuma, Daiei Film Co. He died on September 20, 2000 in Tokyo, Japan and the company was sold to the Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co. In November 2002, Chairman Maihiko Kadokawa announced that Daiei Film Co. would merge with the company’s own film division, Kadokawa Pictures to form Kadokawa-Daiei Film Co. Ltd. it was during the time that when Yasuyoshi Tokuma, owned the Daiei company he would go on to create the three movie set of the Heisei Series Gamera movies as they are respectively titled “Gamera: Guardian of the Universe” (1995), “Gamera vs. Legion” (1996), and the last movie to speak of is “Gamera vs. Iris” (1999) and these particular movies were directed by Shesuke Kaneko who also directed the Godzilla film “GMK” which came out in 2001 for the Toho company. It is these three movies that puts Gamera back in the game with special effects as well as storyline and acting that surpasses any Godzilla film out there. It was these three movies that were critically acclaimed by the Japanese people. In November 2002 when the company was purchased by Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co. they would create another Gamera movie however they would go back to the Showa Series and this particular movie is very kid friendly and altered in a way that it upset a lot of Gamera fans. This movie even though it was child friendly the Gamera in this movie did not look like any Gamera most people recognize. The worst part about it is that this Gamera did not have a signature roar. Another key note is they change the origins of Gamera as he is capable of exploding which to me did not make any sense however he has to consume a red rock in order to go through changes to become the Gamera that we all know he can be he cannot do this without that red rock. They tentatively name this new Gamera “Toto” he does in fact fight a monster they call “Zedus” this is a gigantic lizard like monster with a big long purple top. To me this monster is not really a worthy competitor to what Gamera has fallen in the past. However it is very accommodating that he fights a tiny Gamera which in this case he does. This movie failed in a lot of ways as it is coming from the triple threat they gave Gamera a dark and eerie presence to a child friendly presence. This particular point is what most fans did not care about the movie. Here is some more interesting facts about Gamera and the company that created him. In 1966 the movie that was released in America as Gamera the invincible is the original 1965 classic that was directed by Noriaki Yuasa and this story was written by Nisan Takahashi it quickly became a favorite to the children who love watching Gamera fight monsters. Like I mentioned above there was a total of seven films that was produced from 1965 to 1971 and the eighth entry was slated for a 1972 release this is where the loss projects come into play and this is a movie that never came to be and this is because the company was in the bankruptcy stage before being picked back up in 1974 they had to scrap this movie because of it. The movie was called “Gamera vs. Garasharp” which would have come out in 1972 but was forced to cease production because of the bankruptcy. This particular movie would have been about Gamera fighting a snake like creature that had the hood of a cobra and the snake body with antennas on its head. As I mentioned before the company would go on to produce the Heisei Series of Gamera movies but for all that they wanted to produce another movie that would actually come out in 1980 it was called “Gamera: Super Monster” the filmmakers at this time were forced to make this film simply because of the contracts for one more Gamera film that was owed to the original Daiei company. It was an unfortunate event that when creating this film it was mostly stock footage with new scenes of a brand-new Gamera flying. It was when the production of the film began that Yuasa saw how poorly Tokuma was handling things and knew that Gamera could have never come back from the film. So he had Takahashi rewrite the ending to where Gamera was killed at the end. Last but not least let us talk about some upcoming and future films for Gamera fans. It was noted in that on March 2014 “Anime News Network reported that a new Gamera production is planned, with no date specified however it is planned to be released sometime in 2015. Some rumors and speculations have risen on the Internet and here are some in my humble opinion something that do not like to hear. It is said they will change Gamera’s form now what that means is they might completely alter the look of Gamera and honestly I am not sure that is a smart thing unless they change his looks to the point that you still recognize him like they do with the Godzilla suits. Another thing they are going to change is his origins and they did that in the last movie called “Gamera Little Brave” which came out in 2006 and that in my opinion was not a good thing for the way they portrayed Gamera in this movie it would have been okay for kids but I did not personally care for the way they handled it. Assuming they are going to change the origin in this movie I hope it has something interesting to which will not be a bad thing I think the worst thing that gets to me is a going to change the looks of Gamera I am not sure how to handle that, but we will have to wait and see. The last keynote that I want to mention is I have heard rumors and speculations that Kadokawa Pictures are thinking about removing Gamera and the fact that he flies and I hope this is just a rumor because honestly in my opinion this would be the most stupid thing they have ever done. Keep in mind it is the 50th anniversary movie for Gamera so for them to create a film they need to completely alter the entire franchise of Gamera give us a completely different Gamera that we could be pleased with, and again we will have to wait and see how they do this! Now this particular article is based on some trivial facts and understanding of what Gamera is and how he was created and what companies owned him and what the companies went through all the way up to today with also updates on the new Gamera movie for his 50th anniversary and I am hoping they will do this well. I hope you enjoy this article! The End
2020.09.17 16:49 tnerappaPredicting the Premier League Table for the 20-21 season using historical seasons from the start of decades
I was creating a comment for Trivia Thursday on the First Division season fifty years ago and it got me thinking - do top level clubs work like werewolves? Do they only get stronger on a yearly rotation, like werewolves are released under a full moon? To test this galaxy brain theory, I have the perfect subject- the start of a decade season has started in the Premier League, so can I predict the coming Premier League by looking at the football league tables at the start of each decade since the English Football League has begun? To do this, I had to look through historical data. The problem is the current format of the English Football Leagues begun with the Premier League in the 90's, so comparing historical data is difficult. To do this, I will use golf scores: If a team finishes 1st in the First Division, they get a score of 1. If there are 20 teams in the First Division, and another team finishes 1st in the Second Division, they get a score of 21. All of those scores added together, divided by the total seasons they have been in the leagues (as Aston Villa, Burnley, Everton, Wolverhampton and West Brom were the only five teams in the 1890-91 season in the current Premier League) gives you a score per season rating. Ranked up, this tells you how powerful a club is at the start of a decade and there's absolutely no external factors that could possibly exist to determine team strength. League seasons I have included: 1890-91,1900-01,1910-11, 1920-21, 1930-31, 1950-51, 1960-61, 1970-71, 1980-81, 1990-91, 2000-01, 2010-11. So with this in mind, this is how the Premier League Table will look in 2020-21:
Total Score from all seasons
Seasons in dataset
Based on this bulletproof analysis, Arsenal return to the top of the tree for the first time since 2003-04 under the guidance of Arteta. Elneny turns into Prime Zidane, runs the Premier League dry, and Saka gets Young Player of the Year after scoring 25 goals this year.
Manchester United return to second. Donny van de Beek makes a huge difference to the midfield, and Mason Greenwood wins golden boot scoring 47 goals.
José Mourinho guides Tottenham to third. Bale reinvigorates the team and has a brilliant season, including scoring a 30 yard overhead kick against Southampton. Kane injures his ankle again, but Lucas Moura magically grows by a foot and becomes an excellent backup striker.
Liverpool can't keep up the intensity of the previous seasons but still contest Tottenham for third.
Everton make a huge leap forward, following the triple signings of Allan, Doucoure and James Rodriguez. James runs the show hitting double figures in goals and assists, and flights from Bogota to Liverpool increase by 470000% as the nation treats Liverpool like a pilgrimage. Still finish below Liverpool though.
The wheels fall of Pep's passing train. After a rocky season mired with defensive issues and injuries no consistency can be built.
Aston Villa, jubilant after the contract signing of Grealish, go on to charge up the Premier League table cemeting themselves back in the top division. Ollie Watkins is explosive, forming a formidable attacking side with enough defensive rigidity to play an attacking brand of football.
Chelsea have an extremely rough season after a squad revamp. The players don't jel, Werner suffers a serious injury and Havertz causes a storm when it turns out he faked his date of birth and he's actually fifteen.
Newcastle's transfers go to plan with Andy Carroll and Callum Wilson forming a deadly strike partnership. Remarkable is the transformation of Joelinton, who goes from zero to hero, converting into a centre-half and cemeting a powerful back three with Lascelles as captain.
West Brom have a tough start to the year as their dynamic and quick interpassing style is found out in the Premier League. Luckily, Pulis dons his cap, sticks Robson-Kanu and Charlie Austin upfront and shithouses 1-0 wins to solidify West Brom as a force of nature.
Wolverhampton have a season dip finishing in eleventh. They could have finished higher, but they had to forfeit a game against Newcastle 3-0 as they were lose on the way up to the Tyne. Asking for directions from a passerby, they realised nobody on the bus spoke English, and so couldn't get help.
Leeds United make a strong return to the Premier League. Bielsa's football is exciting and one-of-a-kind. Most remarkable is Jean-Kevin Augustin, who manages to score 15 goals after being reluctantly bought by Bielsa following a dispute with RB Leipzig.
West Ham lock in thirteenth following a decent year. Moyes is constantly attacked for his style of play, yet West Ham manage to constantly scrape wins.
Southampton have a below expectation seasons, as Danny Ings suffers an early season injury and the side struggle to find goals.
Burnley's thin squad is rough around Christmas, but in classic Burnley fashion theya re just too resilient to go down.
Leicester have a horrendous season. Brendan Rodgers can't get the team to function as required, and long term injuries to Ndidi and Vardy mean the team struggles to find balance. Sam Allardyce comes in with 7 games left, and manages to drag Leicester out of the relegation zone.
Chris Wilder struggles to get Sheffield United on tune, with none of the striker firing. Second season syndrome hits the club hard, but they manage to stabilise and not fall into the bottom three.
Scott Parker's Fulham start well, but a lack of quality in the squad hits home consistently being outperformed. A late season surge brings them out from the bottom of the table but they just fall short.
Crystal Palace have a rough year - Zaha, Eze, Townsend, Ayew and Batshuayi can't get any attacking consistency and the side just leaks goal. The approach of Marco Silva, returned from the dead, doesn't revive them and a second meme is spawned of Marco Silva looking sad.
Brighton have a rough year - despite starting well, the pass and move idealogy of Potter struggles against rigid defences and the side struggle for goals. A mid season capitulation, in-fighting and downing tools follows, leading to multiple losses and being rooted to the base of the table for the last few game-weeks.
So that's the Premier League this year with unrefutable evidence. Use me for your betting and Fantasy Premier League. But who wins the FA Cup using this decadal theory? At the start of decades:
Blackburn, Bradford, West Brom, Newcastle, Arsenal, Liverpool and Manchester City have won it once.
Tottenham have won the FA Cup FIVE TIMES at the start of decades.
tl;dr - Mourinho is taking Tottenham to an F.A. Cup with inarguable evidence.
2020.09.16 18:52 isisssss[WTS] Proof Cent, Buff Nickels, AU Details Flying Eagle, 1909 VDB for $3, 2 Cent Pieces, RPD Indian Cent, Clipped Planchet Merc Dime, and more!
Howdy, The images are in order of how they appear in lot sequencing. PM or CHAT proof/images link : https://imgur.com/gallery/1dyyOKI Trades Could also be done! --- Lot 1: 1960 proof Cent. 75 cents Lot 2: 1965 2 ore, 10 cents Lot 3: Scovil James Madison Presidential Token, $5sold Lot 4: 1909 1 cent, no VDB, $1sold Lot 5: 1909 VDB Cent, $3sold Lot 6: 1912 Cent, $1sold Lot 7: 1913 Type 1 Buffalo Nickel, $4sold Lot 8: 1934 Buffalo Nickel, XF/AU, $4sold Lot 9: High AU Details/Low UNC 1857 Flying Eagle, $150 Lot 10: 26 1910-1934 Cents. I think 4 of them are from the 30s, lots of teen dates! $3 for all SOLD Lot 11: 1936 Clipped Planchet Mercury Dime, $5 Lot 12: 1970 S Small Date Cent, $3 Lot 13: 1866 1C IHP XF40 NGC. RPD. FS-301, Snow-2. $200 Lot 14: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10 Lot 15: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10 Lot 16: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $10 Lot 17: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $9 Lot 18: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $8 Lot 19: 1865. 2 Cent Piece. $7 ---- Risky shipping is $0.75 up to 4 ungraded coins. Shipping first class(with tracking) at $4. First-class is only up to 16oz. Priority is above 16oz, and its $8. Payment in all avenues except cashapp. Zelle is loved, venmo is as well. Paypal is sneaky, use it as a last resort. NO NOTES! All items will ship Thursday, Sept 17th, 2020.
2020.09.15 22:16 AstacusMaximusConsidering Jumping Out of The Tiber
Or maybe I already have? Not too sure. I'm in my early thirties. And to not make a long story any longer, I am also a divorced man. Ended up getting married in the church (like I was told), to a virgin (like I was told), and saved myself for my wedding night (as I was told). I was told that by doing all these things, I would end up having a successful marriage. I kept at it for four years. Four long and frustrating years until I could no longer handle the verbal abuse and the gaslighting. I ended up divorcing her on the advice of a Protestant family member. After all, no good marriage ends up in divorce, right? I did what every good Catholic does when they divorce: get a Catholic divorce! Well, an annulment. Unlike others on Catholicism, I didn't have that bad of a problem getting the annulment. I hired a canon lawyer for a modest fee who took my case and she found some minute, hairsplitting detail to render the union void. Badda bing. Badda boom. Within six months, I was a bachelor in the eyes of Rome. But washing the stain of divorce out of your baptismal garment is pretty rough stuff. Even with an annulment, single, devout Catholic ladies still treat you like leftovers. I was spoiled goods, as it was. And to be honest, even the folks over on the various Catholic subreddits weren't very sympathetic either. So, as a conservative man I did the unthinkable: I went to online dating. Presently, I am dating a fabulous woman who isn't even Christian. She's Jewish, but not observant aside from shabbos dinner parties. Although our worldviews are very different metaphysically, I couldn't be more happier. We get along quite well and are surprisingly compatible. We've even talked marriage. And herein lies the rub. Firstly, I would hate to have her endure pre-Cana. Second, my diocese would probably require that in order to have a dispensation from form and a disparity of cult that she would have to promise to raise any children from the union as devout Roman Catholics. I couldn't do that. And she has insisted that any children we had would be raised as Jews. I support this. I suppose though I haven't given much thought where that leaves me. Aside from the typical Catholic guilt and shame, I had a pretty positive experience growing up in the Church. No one abused me. Our priest was a family friend. I'm still very "high church." A lot of my ontology and framework I think I owe to Roman Catholicism. And I would hate to throw that away. But considering my present circumstances, not to mention the insanity that COVID19 has rendered regarding any public gathering, mass included, just makes it not feasible. I am sympathetic to Nicene Christianity. BUT, I think the suppression of rites, papal absolute authority, strange Marian theology (I was never really big on the rosary), and this claim of timeless tradition in spite of being stuck liturgically in 1970 with a 16th century mindset is just lunacy for me. I guess I am also just tired of having to fill out incessant forms to "normalize" my life in the eyes of Christ. I guess I just don't know where to go from here, and if I could even find a place as a relatively conservative guy in the TEC...
Today tens of millions of people are online dating. Pew's latest study shows that 80% of online daters in the U.S. think it's a good way to meet someone. And 62% say it helps them find better matches. This educational film deals with the subject of teen dating, sort of. It's mostly about a cranky girl who gets annoyed with just about everybody. A group of teenagers experience emotional upsets while at a party.